Advertise with us
[March 01, 2013]
ECHELON CORP - 10-K - MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
(Edgar Glimpses Via Acquire Media NewsEdge) The following discussion should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and notes thereto included elsewhere in this Annual Report.
The following discussion contains predictions, estimates, and other forward-looking statements that involve a number of risks and uncertainties about our business. These statements may be identified by the use of words such as "we believe," "expect," "anticipate," "intend," "plan," "goal," "continues," "may" and similar expressions. Forward-looking statements include statements that refer to projections of our future financial performance, our anticipated growth and trends in our businesses, and other characterizations of future events or circumstances. In particular, these statements include statements such as: our projections of Systems revenues; estimates of our future gross margins; statements regarding reinvesting a portion of our earnings from foreign operations; plans to use our cash reserves to strategically acquire other companies, products, or technologies; our projections of our combined cash, cash equivalent and short term investment balance; the sufficiency of our cash reserves to meet cash requirements; our expectations that our Sub-systems revenues will not fluctuate significantly due to a fluctuation in foreign currency sales; our forecasts regarding our sales and marketing expenses; and estimates of our interest income. Such statements are based on our current expectations and could be affected by the uncertainties and risk factors described throughout this filing and particularly in the "Factors That May Affect Future Results of Operations" section. Therefore, our actual results may differ materially and adversely from those expressed in any forward-looking statements. We undertake no obligation to review or update publicly any forward-looking statements for any reason.
EXECUTIVE OVERVIEW Echelon Corporation was incorporated in California in February 1988 and reincorporated in Delaware in January 1989. We are based in San Jose, California, and maintain offices in eleven foreign countries throughout Europe and Asia. We develop, market, and sell energy control networking solutions, a critical element of incorporating action-oriented intelligence into the utility grid, buildings, streetlights, and other energy devices - all components of the evolving smart grid, which encompasses everything from the power plant to the plug. Echelon's products can be used to make the management of electricity over the smart grid cost effective, reliable, survivable and instantaneous. Our products enable everyday devices - such as air conditioners, appliances, electricity meters, light switches, thermostats, and valves - to be made "smart" and inter-connected.
Our proven, open standard, multi-application energy control networking platform powers energy-savings applications for smart grid, smart cities and smart buildings that help customers save on their energy usage, reduce outage duration or prevent them from happening entirely, reduce carbon footprint and more.
Today, we offer, directly and through our partners worldwide, a wide range of innovative, fully integrated products and services. We classify these products and services into two primary categories: Systems, such as our smart metering solutions, which are targeted for use by utilities and that we previously referred to as our Utility products and services; and Sub-systems that include our components, control nodes and development software, which are sold typically to OEMs who build them into their smart grid, smart cities and smart buildings solutions. Revenues from our Sub-systems products and services were previously referred to as Commercial and Enel Project revenues.
Our total revenues decreased by 14.4% during 2012 as compared to 2011, driven principally by a significant market slowdown, which primarily decreased sales of our Systems products. Gross margins remained fairly constant between the two years, while overall operating expenses decreased by 13.6%. The net effect was a loss attributable to Echelon Corporation stockholders in 2012 that decreased by $182,000 as compared to 2011.
The following tables provide an overview of key financial metrics for the years ended December 31, 2012 and 2011 that our management team focuses on in evaluating our financial condition and operating performance (in thousands, except percentages).
29-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Table of Contents Year ended 31 December 2012 2011 $ Change % Change Net revenues $ 134,017 $ 156,487 $ (22,470 ) (14.4 )% Gross margin 42.1 % 42.9 % --- (0.8) ppt Operating expenses $ 67,695 $ 78,371 $ (10,676 ) (13.6 )% Net loss attributable to Echelon Corporation Stockholders $ (12,818 ) $ (13,000 ) $ 182 (1.4 )% Cash, cash equivalents, and short-term investments $ 61,855 $ 58,656 $ 3,199 5.5 % • Net revenues: Our total revenues decreased by 14.4% during 2012 as compared to 2011, driven primarily by a $14.2 million, or 14%, decrease in sales of our Systems products and services and an $8.2 million or 14% decrease in net revenues from our Sub-systems products. The decrease in our Systems revenues was primarily due to an overall decrease in the level of large-scale deployments in the United States of our NES system products. With respect to our Sub-systems product line, the decrease in revenues during 2012 was due to decrease in sales to our America and EMEA Sub-system customers other than Enel, reflecting depressed economic conditions and ongoing market share loss.
Many of our Sub-systems customers produce products used in commercial or industrial buildings. The markets for these products were adversely affected by the recession that started in 2008. These markets have yet to recover to their pre-recession levels.
• Gross margin: Our gross margin decreased by 0.8 percentage points during 2012 as compared to 2011. The decrease was primarily due to an increased percentage of lower margin deals in our Systems business and the change in mix of Sub-systems products sold, with increased revenues from our smart server products. This decline in gross margins was partially offset by the increase in margins from service revenues comprising a higher percentage of total revenues.
• Operating expenses: Our operating expenses decreased by 13.6% during 2012 as compared to 2011. The decreases were driven primarily by decreases in compensation costs (primarily due to reduced headcount and other employee related costs) as well as reduced travel costs. Also contributing to the decrease in operating expenses for the year were the reduced fees paid to third party service providers. Along with the reasons noted above, also contributing to the decrease in operating expenses was the impact of the reduction of stock compensation expense of $600,000 reflecting the retirement of our former CFO as well as the restructuring action during the second quarter of 2012. These decreases were partially offset by the related restructuring charge of approximately $1.2 million that we booked during 2012 as well as the by the reduced stock compensation expense of $1.0 million resulting from the passing of our former Executive Chairman, Ken Oshman, in 2011.
• Net loss attributable to Echelon Corporation Stockholders: We generated a net loss of $12.8 million during 2012 which was relatively unchanged from the net loss of $13.0 million in 2011. Excluding the impact of non-cash stock-compensation charges and restructuring charges, our net loss increased by approximately $1.3 million in 2012 as compared to 2011.
• Cash, cash equivalents, and short-term investments: During 2012, our cash, cash equivalents, and short-term investment balance increased by 5.5%, from $58.7 million at December 31, 2011 to $61.9 million at December 31, 2012.
This increase was primarily the result of cash provided by operations of $5.4 million due mainly to reduction in working capital (increased A/R collections of $19.4 million being the primary driver) and $2.0 million cash received from our joint venture partner, Holley Metering, partly offset by cash used for taxes paid on stock awards released during the year and principal payments on our lease financing obligations.
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates Our discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations is based upon our consolidated financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America. Note 1, "Significant Accounting Policies" of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in this Annual Report on Form 10-K describes the significant accounting policies and methods used in the preparation of our consolidated financial statements. The preparation of these consolidated financial statements requires us to make estimates and judgments that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses and related disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities. On an on-going basis, we evaluate our estimates, including those related to our stock-based compensation, allowance for doubtful accounts, inventories, and commitments and contingencies.
We base our estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments 30-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Table of Contents about the carrying values of assets and liabilities. Actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions.
We believe the following critical accounting policies and estimates relate to those policies that are most important to the presentation of our consolidated financial statements and require the most difficult, subjective, and complex judgments.
Revenue Recognition. Our revenues are derived from the sale and license of our products and to a lesser extent, from fees associated with training, technical support, and custom software design services offered to our customers. Product revenues consist of revenues from hardware sales and software licensing arrangements. Service revenues consist of product technical support (including software post-contract support services), training, and custom software development services.
We recognize revenue when persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists, delivery to the customer's carrier (and acceptance, as applicable) has occurred, the sales price is fixed or determinable, collectability is probable, and there are no post-delivery obligations. For non-distributor hardware sales, including sales to third party manufacturers, these criteria are generally met at the time of delivery to the customer's carrier. However, for arrangements that contain contractual acceptance provisions, revenue recognition may be delayed until acceptance by the customer or the acceptance provisions lapse unless we can objectively demonstrate that the contractual acceptance criteria have been satisfied, which is generally accomplished by establishing a history of acceptance for the same or similar products. Determining whether sufficient data exists to support recognition of revenue prior to customer acceptance or lapse of acceptance provisions involves significant judgment and changes in those judgments could have a material impact on the timing of revenue recognition. For example, in 2012 we began recognizing revenue on sales of certain variants of our meters at the time of delivery to the customer's carrier (and once all other revenue recognition criteria had been met) irrespective of the contractual acceptance rights stated in our agreements. This decision was based on the acceptance history for these products. We continue to measure acceptance history for other Systems products and intend to transition to revenue recognition at point of transfer of title for these products if and when the acceptance history supports this decision. For sales made to our distributor partners, revenue recognition criteria are generally met at the time the distributor sells the products through to its end-use customer. Service revenue is recognized as the training services are performed, or ratably over the term of the support period.
We account for the rights of return, price protection, rebates, and other sales incentives offered to distributors of our products as a reduction in revenue.
With the exception of sales to distributors, the Company's customers are generally not entitled to return products for a refund. For sales to distributors, due to contractual rights of return and other factors that impact our ability to make a reasonable estimate of future returns and other sales incentives, revenues are not recognized until the distributor has shipped our products to the end customer.
Our multiple deliverable revenue arrangements are primarily related to sales of Systems products, which may include, within a single arrangement, electricity meters and data concentrators (collectively, the "Hardware"); NES system software; Element Manager software; post-contract customer support ("PCS") for the NES system and Element Manager software; extended warranties for the Hardware; and, occasionally, specified enhancements or upgrades to software used in the NES system. For arrangements originating or materially modified after December 31, 2009, with the exception of the NES system software, each of these deliverables is considered a separate unit of accounting. The NES system software functions together with an electricity meter to deliver its essential functionality and any related software license fee is charged for on a per meter basis. Therefore, the NES system software and an electricity meter are combined and considered a single unit of accounting. The Element Manager software is not considered to be part of an electricity meter's essential functionality and, therefore, Element Manager software and any related PCS continues to be accounted for under industry specific software revenue recognition guidance.
However, all other NES system deliverables are no longer within the scope of industry specific software revenue recognition guidance.
We allocate revenue to each element in a multiple-element arrangement based upon the element's relative selling price. We determine the selling price for each deliverable using vendor-specific objective evidence ("VSOE") of selling price or third-party evidence ("TPE") of selling price, if it exists. If neither VSOE nor TPE of selling price exists for a deliverable, we use our best estimated selling price ("BESP") for that deliverable. Since the use of the residual method is eliminated under the new accounting standards, any discounts we offer are allocated to each of the deliverables. Revenue allocated to each element is then recognized when the basic revenue recognition criteria is met for the respective element so long as such revenue is not contingent upon the delivery of other undelivered elements.
Consistent with our methodology under previous accounting guidance, if available, we determine VSOE of fair value for each element based on historical stand-alone sales to third parties or from the stated renewal rate for the elements contained in the initial contractual arrangement. We currently estimate the selling prices for our PCS and extended warranties based on VSOE of fair value.
31-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Table of Contents In many instances, we are not currently able to obtain VSOE of fair value for all deliverables in an arrangement with multiple elements. This may be due to the fact that we infrequently sell each element separately or that we do not price products within a narrow range. When VSOE cannot be established, we attempt to estimate the selling price of each element based on TPE. TPE would consist of our competitor's prices for similar deliverables when sold separately. However, in general, our offerings contain significant differentiation from our competition such that the comparable pricing of products with similar functionality cannot be obtained. Furthermore, we are unable to reliably determine the stand-alone selling prices for similar products of our competitors. Therefore, we typically are not able to obtain TPE of selling price.
When we are unable to establish a selling price using VSOE or TPE, which is generally the case for the Hardware and certain specified enhancements or upgrades to our NES software, we use our BESP in determining the allocation of arrangement consideration. The objective of BESP is to determine the price at which we would transact a sale if the product or service were sold on a stand-alone basis. BESP is generally used for offerings that are not typically sold on a stand-alone basis or for new or highly customized offerings.
We establish pricing for our products and services by considering multiple factors including, but not limited to, geographies, market conditions, competitive landscape, internal costs, gross margin objectives, and industry pricing practices. The determination of pricing also includes consultation with and formal approval by our management, taking into consideration our go-to-market strategy. These pricing practices apply to both our Hardware and software products.
Based on our analysis of pricing stated in contractual arrangements for our Hardware products in historical multiple-element transactions and, to a lesser extent, historical standalone transactions, we have concluded that we typically price our Hardware within a narrow range of discounts when compared to the price listed on our standard pricing grid for similar deliverables (i.e., similar configuration, volume, geography, etc.). Therefore, we have determined that, for our current Hardware for which VSOE or TPE is not available, our BESP is generally comprised of prices based on a narrow range of discounts from pricing stated in our pricing grid.
When establishing BESP for our specified software enhancements or upgrades, we consider multiple factors including, but not limited to, the relative value of the features and functionality being delivered by the enhancement or upgrade as compared to the value of the software product to which the enhancement or upgrade relates, as well as our pricing practices for NES system PCS packages, which may include rights to the specified enhancements or upgrades.
We regularly review VSOE and have established a review process for TPE and BESP.
We maintain internal controls over the establishment and updates of these estimates. There were no material impacts during the year ended December 31, 2012 resulting from changes in VSOE, TPE, or BESP, nor do we expect a material impact from such changes in the near term.
For multiple element arrangements that were entered into prior to January 1, 2010 and that include NES system and/or Element Manager software, we defer the recognition of all revenue until all software required under the arrangement has been delivered to the customer. Once the software has been delivered, we recognize revenues for the Hardware and software royalties upon customer acceptance of the Hardware based on a constant ratio of meters to data concentrators, which is determined on a contract-by-contract basis. To the extent actual deliveries of either meters or data concentrators is disproportionate to the expected overall ratio for any given arrangement, revenue for the excess meters or data concentrators is deferred until such time as additional deliveries of meters or data concentrators has occurred. Revenues for PCS on the NES system and Element Manager software, as well as for extended warranties on Systems Hardware products, are recognized ratably over the associated service period, which generally commences upon the latter of the delivery of all software, or the customer's acceptance of any given Hardware shipment.
As of December 31, 2012 and December 31, 2011, approximately $2.2 million and $9.4 million, respectively, of the Company's Systems revenue was deferred. This decrease in deferred revenues was primarily due to a change in the timing of revenue recognition for certain of the Company's Systems products, which resulted from the Company's ability to objectively demonstrate that the contractual acceptance criteria for these products was met at the time of delivery.
Performance-Based Equity Compensation. Certain of the stock-based compensation awards we issue vest upon the achievement of specific financial-based performance requirements. We are required to estimate whether or not it is probable that these financial-based performance requirements will be met, and, in some cases, when they will be met. These estimates of future financial performance require significant management judgment and are based on the best information available at the time of grant, and each quarterly period thereafter until the awards are either earned or forfeited. Any changes we make to our estimates of future financial performance could have a material impact on the amount and timing of compensation expense associated with these awards. See Note 6 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Part II, Item 8 of this report for further discussion of these awards with financial-based performance requirements.
Inventory Valuation. At each balance sheet date, we evaluate our ending inventories for excess quantities and 32-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Table of Contents obsolescence. In general, the evaluation for excess quantities includes analyses of historical sales levels by product and projections of future demand. In general, inventories on hand in excess of one year's forecasted demand are deemed to be excess. However, in certain instances when the facts and circumstances for a particular item warrant an extended view, periods of longer than one year are used to determine excess supplies. In performing these analyses, management must make significant judgments in determining the appropriate time horizon over which to analyze for excess inventories.
In performing the excess inventory analysis, management considers factors that are unique to each of our Systems and Sub-systems product lines. For our Systems products, the analysis requires us to consider that Systems customers procure specific meter types that meet their requirements. In other words, any given customer may require a meter that is "custom" to its specifications.
Accordingly, management must make significant judgments not only as to which customers will buy how many meters (and associated data concentrators), but also which meter type(s) each customer will buy. In making these judgments, management uses the best sales forecast information available at the time.
However, because future sales volumes for any given customer opportunity have the potential to vary significantly, actual results could be materially different from original estimates. This could increase our exposure to excess inventory for which we would need to record a reserve, thereby resulting in a potentially material negative impact to our operating results.
For most of our Sub-systems products, our customers generally buy from a portfolio of "off-the-shelf" or standard products. In addition, whereas for our Systems customers our revenues are attributable to a relatively few customers buying substantial quantities of any given product, our Sub-systems revenues are composed of a larger volume of smaller dollar transactions. Accordingly, while any single Sub-systems customer's demand for a given product may fluctuate from quarter to quarter, the fact that there are so many Sub-systems customers buying a standard product tends to average out increases or decreases in any individual customer's demand. This has historically resulted in a relatively stable future demand forecast for our Sub-systems products, which, absent outside forces such as worsening general economic conditions, management evaluates in determining its requirement for an excess inventory reserve.
In addition to providing a reserve for excess inventories, we do not value inventories that we consider obsolete. We consider a product to be obsolete when one of several factors exists. These factors include, but are not limited to, our decision to discontinue selling an existing product, the product has been re-designed and we are unable to rework our existing inventory to update it to the new version, or our competitors introduce new products that make our products obsolete.
We adjust remaining inventory balances to approximate the lower of our cost or market value. If future demand or market conditions are less favorable than our projections, additional inventory write-downs may be required and would be reflected in cost of sales in the period the revision is made.
Warranty Reserves. We evaluate our reserve for warranty costs based on a combination of factors. In circumstances where we are aware of a specific warranty related problem, for example a product recall, we reserve an estimate of the total out-of-pocket costs we expect to incur to resolve the problem, including, but not limited to, costs to replace or repair the defective items and shipping costs. When evaluating the need for any additional reserve for warranty costs, management takes into consideration the term of the warranty coverage, the quantity of product in the field that is currently under warranty, historical warranty-related return rates, historical costs of repair, and knowledge of new products introduced. If any of these factors were to change materially in the future, we may be required to increase our warranty reserve, which could have a material negative impact on our results of operations and our financial condition. Our reserve for warranty costs was $519,000 as of December 31, 2012, and $875,000 as of December 31, 2011.
33-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Table of Contents RESULTS OF OPERATIONSThe following table reflects the percentage of total revenues represented by each item in our Consolidated Statements of Operations for the years ended December 31, 2012, 2011, and 2010: Year ended 31 December 2012 2011 2010 Revenues: Product 96.6 % 97.6 % 96.8 % Service 3.4 2.4 3.2 Total revenues 100.0 100.0 100.0 Cost of revenues: Cost of product 56.3 55.6 53.8 Cost of service 1.6 1.5 2.2 Total cost of revenues 57.9 57.1 56.0 Gross profit 42.1 42.9 44.0 Operating expenses: Product development 22.4 22.2 31.3 Sales and marketing 16.0 16.4 22.6 General and administrative 11.2 11.5 15.9 Restructuring charges 0.9 - 1.1 Total operating expenses 50.5 50.1 70.9 Loss from operations (8.4 ) (7.2 ) (26.9 ) Interest and other income (expense), net (0.3 ) - 0.4 Interest expense on lease financing obligations (1.0 ) (0.9 ) (1.4 ) Loss before provision for income taxes (9.7 ) (8.1 ) (27.9 ) Income tax expense 0.2 0.2 0.3 Net loss (9.9 ) (8.3 ) (28.2 ) Net loss attributable to non controlling interest 0.3 - - Net loss attributable to Echelon Corporation stockholders (9.6 )% (8.3 )% (28.2 )% Revenues Total revenues Year ended 31 December 2012 over 2011 over 2011 over 2011 2010 2012 over 2011 2010 % (Dollars in thousands) 2012 2011 2010 $ Change $ Change % Change Change Total revenues $ 134,017 $ 156,487 $ 111,037 (22,470 ) 45,450 (14.4 )% 40.9 % The $22.5 million decrease in total revenues for the year ended December 31, 2012 as compared to 2011, was primarily due to an $14.2 million, or 14.3%, decrease in sales of our Systems products and services and an $8.2 million, or 14.4%, decrease in net revenues from our Sub-systems products, which reflected the slowdown in the market in general. The $45.5 million increase in total revenues for the year ended December 31, 2011 as compared to 2010 was primarily the result of a $3.3 million increase in Sub-systems revenues and a $42.2 million increase in Systems revenues.
As we look forward to 2013, the smart energy market continues to be in the midst of a challenging time. Macro conditions remain tentative amidst the European financial crisis, and competition is heightened as the industry continues to face slow growth and ongoing consolidation. New tender activity for smart-metering deployments continues to be down and pricing 34-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Table of Contents pressures continue to increase. In addition, the Sub-system business is still being negatively impacted by worldwide macro economic conditions, as well as ongoing market share loss, particularly in the buildings market. In this challenging environment, we expect our revenues in the first quarter of 2013 will be fairly similar to those generated in the fourth quarter of 2012.
Systems revenues Year ended 31 December 2012 over 2011 over 2011 over 2011 2010 2012 over 2011 2010 % (Dollars in thousands) 2012 2011 2010 $ Change $ Change % Change Change Systems revenues $ 85,179 $ 99,428 $ 57,257 (14,249 ) 42,171 (14.3 )% 73.7 % During the years ended December 31, 2012 and 2011, our Systems revenues were derived primarily from a relatively small number of customers who have undertaken large-scale deployments of our NES System products. These deployments generally come to fruition after an extended and complex sales process, and each is relatively substantial in terms of its revenue potential. They vary significantly from one another in terms of, among other things, the overall size of the deployment, the duration of time over which the products will be sold, the mix of products being sold, the timing of delivery of those products, and the ability to modify the timing or size of those projects. This relative uniqueness among each deployment results in significant variability and unpredictability in our Systems revenues.
Systems revenues decreased during the year ended December 31, 2012 as compared to 2011. This was primarily due to an overall decrease in the level of large-scale deployments of our NES System products in the United States, Denmark, and Russia, partly offset by an increase in the products shipped to our customer in Finland. Systems revenues increased during the year ended December 31, 2011 as compared to 2010. In particular, the increase was primarily attributable to increased shipments of our NES products for projects in the United States and Finland, partially offset by reductions in shipments for projects in Denmark. To a lesser extent, the increase in Systems revenues was also attributable to the fact that, during 2011 we began recognizing revenue upon delivery to the customer's carrier for our data concentrator products (once all other revenue recognition criteria had been met). Previously, these revenues would have been deferred until the customer acceptance provisions contained in our arrangements had been satisfied. However, based on our review of historical acceptance rates for this product, we were able to objectively demonstrate that the contractual acceptance criteria had been met at the time of delivery to the customer's carrier.
Our ability to recognize revenue for our Systems products depends on several factors, including, but not limited to, the impact on delivery dates of any modifications to existing shipment schedules included in the contracts that have been awarded to us thus far, and in some cases, certain contractual provisions, such as customer acceptance. For arrangements that contain contractual acceptance provisions, revenue recognition may be delayed until acceptance by the customer or the acceptance provisions lapse unless we can objectively demonstrate that the contractual acceptance criteria have been satisfied, which is generally accomplished by establishing a history of acceptance for the same or similar products. In the future, we will continue to evaluate historical acceptance rates for our Systems products and, when the data supports it, will recognize revenue at the point of delivery to the customer's carrier for those particular products (once all other revenue recognition criteria have been met), which could increase our Systems revenue in the period in which this determination is made. In addition, the revenue recognition rules relating to products such as our NES System may require us to defer some or all of the revenue associated with NES product shipments until certain conditions are met in a future period.
Our Systems revenues have historically been concentrated with a relatively few customers. During the years ended December 31, 2012, 2011, and 2010, approximately 86.3%, 94.2%, and 85.4%, respectively, of our Systems revenues were attributable to four customers. While our Systems customers will change over time, given the nature of the Systems market, we expect our future Systems revenues will continue to be concentrated among a limited number of customers.
35-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Table of Contents Sub-systems revenues Year ended 31 December 2011 over 2012 over 2011 2010 2012 over 2011 2011 over (Dollars in thousands) 2012 2011 2010 $ Change $ Change % Change 2010 % Change Sub-systems revenues $ 48,838 $ 57,059 $ 53,780 (8,221 ) 3,279 (14.4 )% 6.1 % Our Sub-systems revenues are primarily comprised of sales of our hardware products, and to a lesser extent, revenues we generate from sales of our software products and from our customer support and training offerings. Included in these totals are products and services sold to Enel.
Excluding sales of products and services to Enel, which are discussed more fully below, our Sub-systems revenues decreased by $7.6 million, or 15.1% during the year ended December 31, 2012 as compared to 2011. This decrease was primarily due to a decrease in revenues in the all the regions we serve and ongoing market share loss. Within the Sub-systems family of products, the year-over-year decrease was driven primarily from decreased sales of our control and connectivity products as well as our SmartServer products. We have seen a loss in market share primarily due to reduced investment in research and development, especially the LONWORKS portfolio, which combined with the overall macro economic slowdown has caused a decrease in our Sub-systems revenues. Excluding sales of products and services to Enel, our Sub-systems revenues increased by $805,000, or 1.6% in 2011 as compared to 2010. This increase was primarily due to an increase in revenues in the APJ region and the EMEA region, partially offset by a reduction in revenues in the Americas region. During the first quarter of 2010, Sub-systems revenues from the Americas were unusually high due to a concentration with one customer. That unusually high level of revenue was not repeated during the remainder of 2010, or during 2011. Within the Sub-systems family of products, the year-over-year increase was driven primarily from increased sales of our control and connectivity products, partially offset by a decrease in sales of our Network Services products.
Our future Sub-systems revenues will also be subject to further fluctuations in the exchange rates between the United States dollar and the foreign currencies in which we sell these products and services. In general, if the dollar were to weaken against these currencies, our revenues from those foreign currency sales, when translated into United States dollars, would increase. Conversely, if the dollar were to strengthen against these currencies, our revenues from those foreign currency sales, when translated into United States dollars, would decrease. The extent of this exchange rate fluctuation increase or decrease will depend on the amount of sales conducted in these currencies and the magnitude of the exchange rate fluctuation from year to year. The portion of our Sub-systems revenues conducted in currencies other than the United States dollar, principally the Japanese Yen, was about 8.3% for the year ended December 31, 2012, 7.4% in 2011 and 7.3% in 2010. To date, we have not hedged any of these foreign currency risks. We do not currently expect that, during 2013, the amount of our Sub-systems revenues conducted in these foreign currencies will fluctuate significantly from prior year levels. Given the historical and expected future level of sales made in foreign currencies, we do not currently plan to hedge against these currency rate fluctuations. However, if the portion of our revenues conducted in foreign currencies were to grow significantly, we would re-evaluate these exposures and, if necessary, enter into hedging arrangements to help minimize these risks.
Enel project revenues (included in Sub-systems) Year ended 31 December 2011 over 2011 over 2012 over 2011 2010 2012 over 2011 2010 % (Dollars in thousands) 2012 2011 2010 $ Change $ Change % Change Change Enel project revenues $ 6,458 $ 7,119 $ 4,645 (661 ) 2,474 (9.3 )% 53.3 % In October 2006, we entered into two agreements with Enel, a development and supply agreement and a software enhancement agreement. Under the development and supply agreement, Enel is purchasing additional metering kit and data concentrator products from us. Under the software enhancement agreement, we are providing software enhancements to Enel for use in its Contatore Elettronico system. Enel Project revenues recognized during the years ended December 31.
2012, 2011, and 2010, respectively, related primarily to shipments under the development and supply agreement, and to a lesser extent, from 36-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Table of Contents revenues attributable to the software enhancement agreement. The software enhancement agreement expired in December 2012 and the development and supply agreement expires in December 2015.
We sell our products to Enel and its designated manufacturers in U.S. dollars.
Therefore, the associated revenues are not subject to foreign currency risks.
Gross Profit and Gross Margin Year ended 31 December 2012 over 2011 over 2011 over 2011 2010 2012 over 2011 2010 % (Dollars in thousands) 2012 2011 2010 $ Change $ Change % Change Change Gross Profit $ 56,455 $ 67,162 $ 48,851 (10,707 ) 18,311 (15.9 )% 37.5 % Gross Margin 42.1 % 42.9 % 44.0 % - - (0.8 ) (1.1 ) Gross profit is equal to revenues less cost of revenues. Cost of revenues for product revenues includes direct costs associated with the purchase of components, subassemblies, and finished goods, as well as indirect costs such as allocated labor and overhead; costs associated with the packaging, preparation, and shipment of products; and charges related to warranty and excess and obsolete inventory reserves. Cost of revenues for service revenues consists of employee-related costs such as salaries and fringe benefits as well as other direct and indirect costs incurred in providing training, customer support, and custom software development services. Gross margin is equal to gross profit divided by revenues.
Gross margin decreased by 0.8 percentage points for the year ended December 31, 2012 as compared to 2011. The decrease was primarily due to an increased percentage of lower margin deals in our Systems business and the change in mix of Sub-systems products sold, with increased revenues from our smart server products. This decline in gross margins was partially offset by the increase in margins from service revenues comprising a higher percentage of total revenues.
Our gross margins for the year ended December 31, 2012 were impacted by non routine items such as charges for excess inventory and some production equipment that we don't expect to use, which were the result of lower volume expectations, offset by a one time price increase for products sold in the first half of 2012 to one of our customers. On balance these items did not impact our gross margins in 2012 .
Gross margin decreased by approximately 1.1 percentage points during the year ended December 31, 2011 as compared to 2010. The decrease during the year was primarily due to increased manufacturing costs for our Systems products, and the change in mix of Systems and Sub- systems products sold.
In June 2011, Jabil, one of our primary CEMs, notified us that they intended to increase the prices they charge us for manufacturing our Systems products. The new pricing became effective July 1, 2011, and was based on increased fees for Jabil's overhead and profit, cost increases for commodities contained in our products, and higher labor rates for Jabil's production personnel. The impact of these cost increases began to phase in during the third quarter of 2011 and became fully effective at the beginning of the fourth quarter. In an effort to mitigate the effects of these price increases and thus improve our gross margins within the foreseeable future, we are working on certain design modifications for these products intended to reduce their cost to manufacture. We continue to work closely with Jabil to identify other opportunities to reduce their manufacturing costs associated with our products.
Also contributing to the reduction in gross margins during 2011 was the accounting treatment effect for a software deliverable we had committed to a customer but that was not yet delivered as of December 31, 2011. In this case, we had committed to provide a particular customer with firmware for certain hardware that we began delivering to them during the third quarter of 2011 and continued for the remainder of the year. This firmware enabled the hardware, which was included in some of the meters we shipped to this customer, to become fully functional. Because this incremental hardware was not separable from the meters, we were expensing its cost once the customer accepted the corresponding meter. However, we were deferring the associated revenue for this additional hardware functionality until such time as we delivered the promised firmware in the first quarter of 2012. Partially offsetting the negative 2011 gross margin trends described above was the impact of higher overall revenues.
37-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Table of Contents In addition to the impact of cost increases from our suppliers, our future gross margins will continue to be affected by several factors, including, but not limited to: overall revenue levels, changes in the mix of products sold, periodic charges related to excess and obsolete inventories, warranty expenses, introductions of cost reduced versions of our Systems and Sub-systems products, changes in the average selling prices of the products we sell, purchase price variances, and fluctuations in the level of indirect overhead spending that is capitalized in inventory. In addition, the impact of foreign exchange rate fluctuations and labor rates may affect our gross margins in the future. We currently outsource the manufacturing of most of our products requiring assembly to CEMs located primarily in China. To the extent labor rates were to rise further, or to the extent the U.S. dollar were to weaken against the Chinese currency, or other currencies used by our CEMs, our costs for the products they manufacture could rise, which would negatively affect our gross margins. Lastly, many of our products, particularly our Systems products, contain significant amounts of certain commodities, such as silver, copper, and cobalt. Prices for these commodities have been volatile, which in turn have caused fluctuations in the prices we pay for the products in which they are incorporated.
Operating Expenses Product Development Year ended 31 December 2012 over 2011 2011 over 2010 2012 over 2011 2011 over (Dollars in thousands) 2012 2011 2010 $ Change $ Change % Change 2010 % Change Product Development $ 30,009 $ 34,755 $ 34,762 (4,746 ) (7 ) (13.7 )% - % Product development expenses consist primarily of payroll and related expenses for development personnel, facility costs, expensed material, fees paid to third party service providers, depreciation and amortization, and other costs associated with the development of new technologies and products.
During 2011, our product development expenses were impacted by a contractual arrangement whereby a third party was making payments to us in connection with certain design and development activities we were performing. During 2011, we completed efforts worth $1.5 million. These amounts were used to offset our product development expenses in these periods. Excluding the impact of these offsetting payments, our product development expenses decreased by $6.2 million during 2012 as compared to 2011. These decreases were primarily due to reduced compensation costs, including share based compensation expenses (as mentioned in the executive overview above), which were down primarily due to lower headcount in our product development organization in 2012. These compensation cost reductions were partially offset by increased outside services and contractor costs.
Our product development expenses remained constant in 2011 as compared to 2010.
However, excluding the impact of offsetting payments of $4.5 million in 2010 (versus the $1.5 million in 2011 referenced above), our product development expenses decreased $3.0 million in 2011 as compared to 2010. This decrease was primarily due to reduced compensation related expenses, which was primarily attributable to the restructuring program that reduced our product development headcount ; a reduction in expensed materials used in our product development activities and reduced fees paid to third party service providers who assist in our product development activities.
Sales and Marketing Year ended 31 December 2011 over 2012 over 2011 2010 2012 over 2011 2011 over (Dollars in thousands) 2012 2011 2010 $ Change $ Change % Change 2010 % Change Sales and Marketing $ 21,460 $ 25,719 $ 25,062 (4,259 ) 657 (16.6 )% 2.6 % Sales and marketing expenses consist primarily of payroll, commissions, and related expenses for sales and marketing personnel, travel and entertainment, facilities costs, advertising and product promotion, and other costs associated with our sales and marketing activities.
38-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Table of Contents Our sales and marketing expenses decreased during 2012 as compared to 2011, driven primarily by lower compensation (including commission expenses and bonus expenses), lower travel and entertainment expenses and reduced fees paid to consultants and other third party service providers.
Our sales and marketing expenses increased by $0.7 million in 2011 during as compared to 2010, primarily due to increase in fees paid to recruiters, consultants and other third party service providers, increases in membership fees, partially offset by reduced compensation expenses (lower salaries and stock based compensation, partially offset by higher bonuses).
General and Administrative Year ended 31 December 2011 over (Dollars in 2012 over 2011 2010 2012 over 2011 2011 over thousands) 2012 2011 2010 $ Change $ Change % Change 2010 % Change General and Administrative $ 15,050 $ 17,897 $ 17,647 (2,847 ) 250 (15.9 )% 1.4 % General and administrative expenses consist primarily of payroll and related expenses for executive, finance, and administrative personnel, professional fees for legal and accounting services rendered to the company, facility costs, insurance, and other general corporate expenses.
General and administrative expenses decreased in 2012 as compared to the same period in 2011, primarily due to lower compensation (including bonus expenses and stock based compensation), lower outside service fees and lower professional fees. Our general and administrative expenses remained fairly constant in 2011 as compared to 2010.
Restructuring Charges Year ended 31 December 2012 over 2012 over 2011 2011 over 2010 2011 2011 over (Dollars in thousands) 2012 2011 2010 $ Change $ Change % Change 2010 % Change Restructuring Charges $ 1,176 $ - $ 1,212 1,176 (1,212 ) 100.0 % (100.0 )% In May 2012, we undertook further cost cutting measures by initiating a headcount reduction of 42 full-time employees worldwide, to be terminated between May 2012 and March 2013. In connection with this restructuring plan, in the second quarter of 2012, we recorded restructuring charges of approximately $1.2 million related to termination benefits for these personnel.
With the exception of $149,000 that remains accrued and reflected in accrued liabilities on our Consolidated Balance Sheets as of December 31, 2012, the restructuring charges of a total of $1.0 million were paid out in 2012. We expect to pay the remaining $149,000 of accrued termination benefits through the first two quarters of 2013.
In December 2010, in order to adjust our operating cost structure to more closely align with our 2011 operating plan, we initiated a restructuring program consisting of a headcount reduction of 31 full-time employees worldwide. In connection with this restructuring plan, in the fourth quarter of 2010, we recorded restructuring charges of approximately $1.2 million related to termination benefits for these personnel.
On February 12, 2013, the Company announced a restructuring action affecting approximately 40 employees whose employment will be terminated as part of an overall plan to reshape the Company for the future. The Company expects to incur severance and other related costs in conjunction with this action. Total charges are expected to include cash costs as well as charges or credits related to stock-based compensation expense, and may include facilities, lease termination, asset impairment and other charges. The Company estimates it will incur pre-tax cash charges of $2.5 million to $3.0 million for severance pay expenses and related cash expenditures, which does not include facilities, lease termination or other charges the Company may incur as part of this action. The Company expects to recognize these charges in the quarter ending March 31, 2013.
39-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Table of Contents Interest and Other Income (Expense), Net Year ended 31 December (Dollars in 2012 over 2011 2011 over 2010 2012 over 2011 2011 over 2010 thousands) 2012 2011 2010 $ Change $ Change % Change % Change Interest and Other Income (Expense), Net $ (362 ) $ 6 $ 393 (368 ) (387 ) (6133.3 )% (98.5 )% Interest and other income (expense), net primarily reflects interest earned by our company on cash and short-term investment balances as well as foreign exchange translation gains and losses related to short-term intercompany balances.
Interest and other expense, net increased by $368,000 during the 2012 as compared to the same period in 2011. This increase was primarily attributable to the increase of $466,000 in foreign currency translation losses during 2012 as compared to 2011. Interest and other income (expense), net decreased by $387,000 during 2011 as compared to 2010. This decrease was primarily due to a $219,000 decrease in foreign currency translation gains, an $82,000 decrease in interest income, and a $69,000 increase in losses on disposal of fixed assets. These foreign currency fluctuations are attributable to our foreign currency denominated short-term intercompany balances. We account for translation gains and losses associated with these balances by reflecting these amounts as either other income or loss in our consolidated statements of operations. During periods when the U.S. dollar weakens in value against these foreign currencies, the associated translation losses negatively impact other income. Conversely, when the U.S. dollar strengthens, the resulting translation gains favorably impact other income.
We do not currently anticipate interest income on our investment portfolio will improve during 2012 as we expect interest rates to remain historically low.
Future gains or losses associated with translating our foreign currency denominated short-term intercompany balances will depend on exchange rates in effect at the time of translation.
Interest Expense on Lease Financing Obligations Year ended 31 December 2011 over (Dollars in 2012 over 2011 2011 over 2010 2012 over 2011 2010 % thousands) 2012 2011 2010 $ Change $ Change % Change Change Interest Expense on Lease Financing Obligations $ (1,360 ) $ (1,468 ) $ (1,572 ) (108 ) (104 ) (7.4 )% (6.6 )% The monthly rent payments we make to our lessor under the lease agreements for our San Jose headquarters site are recorded in our financial statements partially as land lease expense, with the remainder being allocated to principal and interest on the financing liability. "Interest expense on lease financing obligations" reflects the portion of our monthly lease payments that is allocated to interest expense.
Interest expense on lease financing obligations decreased by $108,000 during 2012 as compared to 2011, and by $104,000 during 2011 as compared to 2010, which were a result of the nature of this expense. As with any amortizing fixed rate loan, payments made earlier in the term of the loan are comprised primarily of interest expense with little being allocated to principal repayment. Payments made later in the term of the loan, however, have an increasing proportion of principal repayment, with less being attributable to interest expense.
Accordingly, as we continue to make payments in accordance with our lease obligation, we expect a higher proportion of the payments we make in the future will be allocated to principal repayment and less will be allocated to interest expense.
Income Tax Expense Year ended 31 December 2011 over 2012 over 2011 2010 2012 over 2011 2011 over (Dollars in thousands) 2012 2011 2010 $ Change $ Change % Change 2010 % Change Income Tax Expense $ 219 $ 329 $ 301 (110 ) 28 (33.4 )% 9.3 % 40-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Table of Contents The income tax expense for years ended 2012, 2011 and 2010 was $219,000, $329,000 and $301,000, respectively. The difference between the statutory rate and our effective tax rate is primarily due to the impact of foreign taxes, changes in the valuation allowance on deferred tax assets, and changes in the accruals related to unrecognized tax benefits.
OFF-BALANCE-SHEET ARRANGEMENTS AND OTHER CONTRACTUAL OBLIGATIONS Off-Balance-Sheet Arrangements. We have not entered into any transactions with unconsolidated entities whereby we have financial guarantees, subordinated retained interests, derivative instruments, or other contingent arrangements that expose our company to material continuing risks, contingent liabilities, or any other obligation under a variable interest in an unconsolidated entity that provides financing, liquidity, market risk, or credit risk support to us.
Lease Commitments. In December 1999, we entered into a lease agreement with a real estate developer for our existing corporate headquarters in San Jose, California. In October 2000, we entered into a third lease agreement with the same real estate developer for an additional building at our headquarters site.
These leases were scheduled to expire in 2011 and 2013, respectively.
Effective June 2008, the building leases were amended resulting in an extension of the lease term for both buildings through March 2020. The extended leases require minimum lease payments through March 2020 totaling approximately $48.9 million. Both leases permit us to exercise an option to extend the respective lease for two sequential five-year terms.
In addition, we lease facilities under operating leases for our sales, marketing, and product development personnel located elsewhere within the United States and in eleven foreign countries throughout Europe and Asia, including a land lease for accounting purposes associated with our corporate headquarters facilities. These operating leases expire on various dates through 2020, and in some instances are cancelable with advance notice. Lastly, we also lease certain equipment and, for some of our sales personnel, automobiles. These operating leases are generally less than five years in duration.
Purchase Commitments. We utilize several contract manufacturers who manufacture and test our products requiring assembly. These contract manufacturers acquire components and build product based on demand information supplied by us in the form of purchase orders and demand forecasts. These purchase orders and demand forecasts generally cover periods up to twelve months, and in rare cases, up to eighteen months. We also obtain individual components for our products from a wide variety of individual suppliers. We generally acquire these components through the issuance of purchase orders, and in some cases through demand forecasts, both of which cover periods up to twelve months. The products covered by these purchase orders are not included in our reported inventory until such time as we receive them. To the extent our sales forecasts are not achieved, and we are unable to cancel or modify our outstanding purchase orders for quantities exceeding our revised requirements, our reported inventories may increase or we may be required to provide a reserve against excess inventories.
We also utilize purchase orders when procuring capital equipment, supplies, and services necessary for our day-to-day operations. These purchase orders generally cover periods ranging up to twelve months, but in some instances cover a longer duration.
In March 2012, we announced the formation of a joint venture in Hangzhou, China with Holley Metering, a Chinese company with which we have been developing smart energy products for the Chinese and rest-of-world markets. The joint venture required us to provide capital contributions of $2.0 million, which we contributed during 2012.
Indemnifications. In the normal course of business, we provide indemnifications of varying scope to customers against claims of intellectual property infringement made by third parties arising from the use of our products.
Historically, costs related to these indemnification provisions have not been significant. However, we are unable to estimate the maximum potential impact of these indemnification provisions on our future results of operations.
As permitted under Delaware law, we have agreements whereby we indemnify our officers and directors for certain events or occurrences while the officer or director is, or was serving, at our request in such capacity. The indemnification period covers all pertinent events and occurrences during the officer's or director's lifetime. The maximum potential amount of future payments we could be required to make under these indemnification agreements is unlimited; however, we have director and officer insurance coverage that would enable us to recover a portion of any future amounts paid. We believe the estimated fair value of these indemnification agreements in excess of the applicable insurance coverage is minimal.
Royalties. We have certain royalty commitments associated with the shipment and licensing of certain products. Royalty expense is generally based on a U.S.
dollar amount per unit shipped or a percentage of the underlying revenue.
Royalty 41-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Table of Contents expense, which was recorded as cost of products revenue in our consolidated statements of income, was approximately $508,000 during the year ended December 31, 2012, $532,000 in 2011, and $616,000 in 2010.
We will continue to be obligated for royalty payments in the future associated with the shipment and licensing of certain of our products. While we are currently unable to estimate the maximum amount of these future royalties, such amounts will continue to be dependent on the number of units shipped or the amount of revenue generated from these products.
Taxes. We conduct our operations in many tax jurisdictions throughout the world.
In many of these jurisdictions, non-income based taxes such as property taxes, sales and use taxes, and value-added taxes are assessed on Echelon's operations in that particular location. While we strive to ensure compliance with these various non-income based tax filing requirements, there have been instances where potential non-compliance exposures have been identified. In accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, we make a provision for these exposures when it is both probable that a liability has been incurred and the amount of the exposure can be reasonably estimated. To date, such provisions have been immaterial, and we believe that, as of December 31, 2012, we have adequately provided for such contingencies. However, it is possible that our results of operations, cash flows, and financial position could be harmed if one or more non-compliance tax exposures are asserted by any of the jurisdictions where we conduct our operations.
Legal Actions. In April 2009, the Company received notice that the receiver for two companies that filed for the Italian law equivalent of bankruptcy protection in May 2004, Finmek Manufacturing SpA and Finmek Access SpA (collectively, the "Finmek Companies"), had filed a lawsuit under an Italian "claw back" law in Padua, Italy against Echelon, seeking the return of approximately $16.7 million in payments received by Echelon in the ordinary course of business for components we sold to the Finmek Companies prior to the bankruptcy filing. The Finmek Companies were among Enel's third party meters manufacturers, and from time to time through January 2004, we sold components to the Finmek Companies that were incorporated into the electricity meters that were manufactured by the Finmek Companies and sold to Enel SpA for the Enel Project. We continue to believe that the Italian claw back law is not applicable to the circumstances surrounding our transactions with the Finmek Companies and that the claims of the Finmek Companies' receiver are without merit. We have continued to defend the lawsuit as a result. However, it is possible that we, with the consent of our Board of Directors, or the receiver for the Finmek Companies' could decide to pursue settlement of this matter in order to avoid the risk of an adverse judgment, limit administrative inconvenience and curtail litigation costs. In that event, we would make a determination as to whether a loss associated with this action was considered probable or reasonably possible, and we may be required to reserve an appropriate loss to cover an anticipated settlement.
From time to time, in the ordinary course of business, we are subject to legal proceedings, claims, investigations, and other proceedings, including claims of alleged infringement of third-party patents and other intellectual property rights, and commercial, employment, and other matters. In accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, we make a provision for a liability when it is both probable that a liability has been incurred and the amount of the loss can be reasonably estimated. These provisions are reviewed at least quarterly and adjusted to reflect the impacts of negotiations, settlements, rulings, advice of legal counsel, and other information and events pertaining to a particular case. While we believe we have adequately provided for such contingencies as of December 31, 2012, it is possible that our results of operations, cash flows, and financial position could be harmed by the resolution of any such outstanding claims.
As of December 31, 2012, our contractual obligations were as follows (in thousands): Payments due by period Less than 1 More than 5 Total year 2-3 years 4-5 years years Lease financing obligations $ 25,378 $ 3,254 $ 6,738 $ 7,108 $ 8,278 Operating leases 7,096 1,432 2,168 1,771 1,725 Purchase commitments 7,716 7,716 - - - Total $ 40,190 $ 12,402 $ 8,906 $ 8,879 $ 10,003 The amounts in the table above exclude $811,000 of income tax liabilities and related interest and penalties related to uncertain tax positions as we are unable to reasonably estimate the timing of settlement. See Note 10, "Income Taxes" of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for further discussion.
42-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Table of Contents LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES Since our inception, we have financed our operations and met our capital expenditure requirements primarily from the sale of preferred stock and common stock, although during 2012 and certain earlier years, we were also able to finance our operations through operating cash flow. From inception through December 31, 2012, we raised $295.0 million from the sale of preferred stock and common stock, including the exercise of stock options and warrants from our employees and directors.
The following table presents selected financial information as of December 31, 2012, and for each of the last two fiscal years (dollars in thousands): December 31, 2012 2011 2010 Cash, cash equivalents, and short-term investments $ 61,855 $ 58,656 $ 64,632 Trade accounts receivable, net 15,725 35,215 25,102 Working capital 72,661 74,922 77,259 Stockholders' equity 83,795 89,108 93,989 As of December 31, 2012, we had $61.9 million in cash, cash equivalents, and short-term investments, an increase of $3.2 million as compared to December 31, 2011. Historically, our primary source of cash, other than stock sales, has been receipts from revenue, and to a lesser extent, proceeds from the exercise of stock options and warrants by our employees and directors. Our primary uses of cash have been cost of product revenue, payroll (salaries, commissions, bonuses, and benefits), general operating expenses (costs associated with our offices such as rent, utilities, and maintenance; fees paid to third party service providers such as consultants, accountants, and attorneys; travel and entertainment; equipment and supplies; advertising; and other miscellaneous expenses), acquisitions, capital expenditures, payment of taxes associated with certain equity compensation awards and purchases under our stock repurchase programs.
Cash flows from operating activities. Cash flows from operating activities have historically been driven by net income (loss) levels; adjustments for non-cash charges such as stock-based compensation; depreciation and amortization; changes in accrued investment income; and fluctuations in operating asset and liability balances. Net cash provided by operating activities was $5.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2012, an increase in cash inflows of approximately $5.6 million as compared to 2011. During the year ended December 31, 2012, net cash provided by operating activities was primarily the result of changes in operating assets and liabilities of $5.0 million. While we generated a net loss of $13.2 million, that amount was more than offset by non-cash charges for stock-based compensation expenses of $7.0 million and depreciation and amortization expense of $6.6 million. The primary components of the $5.0 million net change in our operating assets and liabilities were a $19.4 million decrease in accounts receivable, a $5.7 million decrease in deferred cost of goods sold and a $1.4 million decrease in other current assets, partially offset by a $9.7 million decrease in accounts payable, a $7.9 million decrease in deferred revenues, a $3.3 million decrease in accrued liabilities and a $642,000 increase in inventories. Accounts receivable decreased primarily as a result of the timing of collections and the fact that our revenues were down in the fourth quarter of 2012 as compared to the same period in 2011. Also contributing to the decrease in accounts receivable was a general improvement in the days sales outstanding for our Systems related receivables. Deferred cost of goods sold decreased in conjunction with a decrease in deferred revenues. Inventories increased primarily due to inventory positions carried over from the first half of the year in to year end, as well as a general increase in the cost of manufacturing, that had a full impact in 2012 as against only half a year of impact in 2011. Accounts payable decreased due to an overall reduction in the level of purchasing activity and timing of expenditures during 2012. Deferred revenues decreased due primarily to our ability to objectively demonstrate that the contractual acceptance criteria for much of the Systems products we shipped during the year was satisfied at the time of delivery, as against prior year where revenues were deferred until customer acceptance was received. Accrued liabilities decreased primarily due to the payment of bonuses and commissions during the first quarter of 2012 that were accrued as of December 31, 2011 in accordance with our 2011 compensation arrangements.
Net cash used in operating activities was $225,000 in 2011, a $9.0 million decrease from 2010. During 2011, net cash used in operating activities was primarily the result of our net loss of $13.0 million and a net change in our operating assets and liabilities of $3.0 million, which was partially offset by non-cash charges for stock-based compensation expenses of $9.6 million and depreciation and amortization expenses of $5.9 million. The primary components of the $3.0 million net change in our operating assets and liabilities were a $10.1 million increase in accounts receivable, a $3.9 million increase in deferred cost of goods sold, and a $2.1 million increase in inventories, all of which were partially offset by an $8.0 million increase in accounts payable, a $3.8 million increase in deferred revenues, and a $1.2 million increase in accrued liabilities. Accounts receivable increased due primarily to higher days sales outstanding as of December 31, 2011 as compared to December 31, 2010, and to a lesser extent by an overall increase in revenues in the fourth quarter of 2011 as compared to the 43-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Table of Contents same period in 2010. Deferred cost of goods sold increased in conjunction with an increase in deferred revenues. Inventories increased primarily due to the timing of customer shipments during the latter part of the fourth quarter that had not yet reached their destination. During the fourth quarter of 2011, the amount of product shipped in the latter part of the quarter for which customer acceptance had not yet been received was higher than what was observed in the fourth quarter of 2010. Accounts payable increased due to the timing of expenditures during the fourth quarter of 2011. Deferred revenues increased due primarily to the timing of products shipped during the fourth quarter of 2011.
Accrued liabilities increased primarily due to amounts accrued for our 2011 management bonus program, which were partially offset by the payment of termination benefits that were accrued as part of our restructuring program in the fourth quarter of 2010.
During 2010, net cash used in operating activities of $9.2 million was primarily the result of our net loss of $31.3 million, which was partially offset by non-cash charges for stock-based compensation expenses of $12.3 million, depreciation and amortization expenses of $6.7 million, and a net change in our operating assets and liabilities of $3.1 million. The primary components of the $3.1 million net change in our operating assets and liabilities were a $3.0 million increase in accounts payable, a $2.0 million decrease in inventories, and a $1.8 million increase in accrued liabilities, the benefits of which were partially offset by a $3.6 million increase in accounts receivable. Accounts payable increased due to the timing of expenditures during the fourth quarter of 2010. Inventories decreased due to continuing improved inventory management in 2010. At the end of 2008, inventory levels were historically high due in part to the world-wide economic slowdown that occurred during the fourth quarter. During 2009 and 2010, inventories were managed back down to more reasonable levels.
Accrued liabilities increased primarily due to approximately $1.2 million of accrued termination benefits resulting from a restructuring program we initiated in the fourth quarter of 2010, and to a lesser extent, by a $497,000 increase in customer deposits. Accounts receivable increased due to the timing of revenues generated in the fourth quarter. During the fourth quarter of 2010, a higher percentage of the quarter's revenues were generated in the latter half of the quarter as compared to 2009, which resulted in a higher receivable balance as of December 31, 2010.
Cash flows from investing activities. Cash flows from investing activities have historically been driven by transactions involving our short-term investment portfolio, capital expenditures, changes in our long-term assets, and acquisitions. Net cash used in investing activities was $3.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2012, an increase of $16.6 million in cash outflows compared to 2011. During the year ended December 31, 2012, net cash used in investing activities was primarily the result of the purchases of available-for-sale short-term investments of $83.9 million and capital expenditures of $1.1 million, partially offset by proceeds from maturities and sales of available-for-sale short-term investments of $82.0 million.
Net cash provided by investing activities in 2011 was primarily the result of net redemptions of available-for-sale short-term investments of $15.9 million, partially offset by capital expenditures of $2.3 million.
Net cash provided by investing activities of $4.0 million in 2010 was primarily the result of net redemptions of available-for-sale short-term investments of $6.0 million, partially offset by capital expenditures of $2.0 million.
Cash flows from financing activities. Cash flows from financing activities have historically been driven by the proceeds from issuance of common and preferred stock offset by transactions under our stock repurchase programs and principal payments on our lease financing obligations. Net cash used in financing activities was $1.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2012, a decrease of $1.7 million as compared to the same period in 2011. During the year ended December 31, 2012, net cash used in financing activities was primarily the result of $1.3 million worth of shares repurchased from employees for payment of employee taxes on vesting of performance shares and upon exercise of stock options and $2.0 million in principal payments on our building lease financing obligations, partly offset by cash received for the capital infusion of $2.0 million by Holley Metering in our joint venture in China.
Net cash used in financing activities in 2011 was primarily attributable to $2.3 million of repurchases of common stock from our employees for payment of income and other payroll taxes they owed upon the vesting of performance shares and upon the exercise of options and $1.7 million of principal payments on our lease financing obligations; partially offset by proceeds of $945,000 resulting from issuance of common stock upon exercise of options by our employees.
Net cash used in financing activities of $3.9 million in 2010 was primarily attributable to $2.9 million of repurchases of common stock from our employees for payment of income and other payroll taxes they owed upon the vesting of performance shares and upon the exercise of options and $1.6 million of principal payments on our lease financing obligations; partially offset by proceeds of $615,000 resulting from issuance of common stock upon exercise of options by our employees.
As noted above, our cash and investments totaled $61.9 million as of December 31, 2012. Of this amount, approximately 6% was held by our foreign subsidiaries. Our intent is to permanently reinvest a significant portion of our earnings from foreign operations, and current plans do not anticipate that we will need funds generated from foreign operations to fund our domestic operations. In the event funds from foreign operations are needed to fund operations in the United States and if U.S. tax has not 44-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Table of Contents already been previously provided, we would provide for and pay any additional U.S. taxes due in connection with repatriating these funds.
We use well-regarded investment managers to manage our invested cash. Our portfolio of investments managed by these investment managers is primarily composed of highly rated U.S. government securities, and to a lesser extent, money market funds. All investments are made according to guidelines and within compliance of policies approved by the Audit Committee of our Board of Directors.
We maintain a $10.0 million line of credit with our primary bank, which expires on July 1, 2013. The letter of credit contains certain financial covenants requiring us to maintain an overall minimum tangible net worth level and to maintain a minimum level of liquid assets. As of December 31, 2012, we were in compliance with these covenants. As of December 31, 2012, our primary bank has issued, against the line of credit, one standby letter of credit totaling $113,000. Other than issuing standby letters of credit, we have never drawn against the line of credit, nor have amounts ever been drawn against the standby letters of credit issued by the bank.
In the future, our cash reserves may be used to strategically acquire other companies, products, or technologies that are complementary to our business or for settlements of customer disputes or litigation. In addition, our combined cash, cash equivalents, and short-term investments balances could be negatively affected by various risks and uncertainties, including, but not limited to, the risks detailed in this Annual Report in Part I, Item 1A - Risk Factors. For example, any continued weakening of economic conditions or changes in our planned cash outlay could negatively affect our existing cash reserves.
Based on our current business plan and revenue prospects, we believe that our existing cash reserves will be sufficient to meet our projected working capital and other cash requirements for at least the next twelve months. However, we currently expect that our combined cash, cash equivalent, and short-term investment balance will decline during 2013. In the event that we require additional financing, such financing may not be available to us in the amounts or at the times that we require, or on acceptable terms. If we fail to obtain additional financing, when and if necessary, our business would be harmed.
RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS The law firm of Wilson Sonsini Goodrich & Rosati, P.C. acts as principal outside counsel to our company. Mr. Sonsini, a director of our company, is a member of Wilson Sonsini Goodrich & Rosati, P.C.
In June 2000, we entered into a stock purchase agreement with Enel pursuant to which Enel purchased 3.0 million newly issued shares of our common stock for $130.7 million. The closing of this stock purchase occurred on September 11, 2000. At the closing, Enel had agreed that it would not, except under limited circumstances, sell or otherwise transfer any of those shares for a specified time period. That time period expired September 11, 2003. To our knowledge, Enel has not disposed of any of its 3.0 million shares. Under the terms of the stock purchase agreement, Enel has the right to nominate a member of our board of directors. A representative of Enel served on our board until March 14, 2012; no Enel representative is presently serving on our board.
At the time we entered into the stock purchase agreement with Enel, we also entered into a research and development agreement with an affiliate of Enel (the "R&D Agreement"). Under the terms of the R&D Agreement, we cooperated with Enel to integrate our LONWORKS technology into Enel's remote metering management project in Italy, the Contatore Elettronico. We completed the sale of our components and products for the deployment phase of the Contatore Elettronico project during 2005. During 2006, we supplied Enel and its designated manufacturers with limited spare parts for the Contatore Elettronico system. In October 2006, we entered into a new development and supply agreement and a software enhancement agreement with Enel. Under the development and supply agreement, Enel and its contract manufacturers purchase additional electronic components and finished goods from us. Under the software enhancement agreement, we provide software enhancements to Enel for use in its Contatore Elettronico system. The software enhancement agreement expired in December 2012 and the development and supply agreement expires in December 2015, although delivery of products and services can extend beyond those dates and the agreements may be extended under certain circumstances.
For the year ended December 31, 2012 and 2011, we recognized revenue from products and services sold to Enel and its designated manufacturers of approximately $6.5 million and $7.1 million, respectively. As of December 31, 2012, $1.6 million of our total accounts receivable balance related to amounts owed by Enel and its designated manufacturers. As of December 31, 2011, none of our total accounts receivable balance related to amounts owed by Enel and its designated manufacturers.
45-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Table of Contents RECENTLY ISSUED ACCOUNTING STANDARDSThere have been no new recent accounting pronouncements or changes in accounting pronouncements during the year ended December 31, 2012, that are of significance, or potential significance, to our company.
Back To NFVZone's Homepage