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[February 26, 2013]
TELETECH HOLDINGS INC - 10-K - MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
(Edgar Glimpses Via Acquire Media NewsEdge) Executive Summary TeleTech is one of the largest and most geographically diverse global providers of technology-enabled, fully-integrated customer experience management solutions. We have a 30-year history of helping our clients maximize the value of their brand through the design and delivery of exceptional customer experiences. Our end-to-end offering originates with the design of data-rich customer-centric strategies. These customer-centric strategies are then enabled by a suite of technologies and world class operations that allow us to more effectively manage and grow the economic value of our client's customer relationships.
We have developed deep vertical industry expertise and serve approximately 200 global clients in the automotive, broadband, communications, financial services, government, healthcare, logistics, media and entertainment, retail, technology and travel industries. We target customer-focused industry leaders in the Global 1000, which are the world's largest companies based on market capitalization, due to their size, global reach and desire for a partner who can quickly and globally scale a suite of fully-integrated services. We typically enter into long-term relationships which provide us with a more predictable revenue stream.
Our relationships with our top five clients have ranged from six to 17 years with the majority of these clients having completed multiple contract renewals with us.
24 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- To further improve our competitive position and stay ahead of a rapidly changing market for our services, we continue to invest in new growth areas. We believe our commitment to innovation will enable us to remain strategically relevant to our clients and to grow and diversify our revenue into higher margin, more technology-enabled services. Of the $1,163 million in revenue we reported in 2012, approximately 21% or $239.2 million came from customer-centric strategy, growth or technology-based services with the remainder coming from our traditional customer management services.
We have historically experienced annual attrition of existing client programs of approximately 5% to 10% of our revenue for our Customer Management Services and Customer Growth Services segments. Attrition of existing client programs during 2012 and 2011 was 8% and 5%, respectively.
Beginning in the first quarter of 2012 we aligned our operations around the following four business segments to more closely reflect our organizational structure as well as our expanding suite of customer experience management solutions.
Based on the requirements of our clients, we provide our services both on a fully-integrated and discrete basis.
Design - Customer Strategy Services We typically begin by engaging our clients at a strategic level. Through our data-driven management consulting expertise we help our clients design and build their customer experience strategies. We improve our clients' ability to better understand and predict their customers' behaviors and preferences along with their current and future economic value so that they can deploy resources to achieve the greatest return. Using proprietary analytic models, we provide the insight clients need to build the business case for customer centricity, to better optimize their marketing spend and then work alongside them to help implement our recommendations. A key component of this practice involves instilling a high performance culture through a lean management framework. This process optimization capability enables the client to align and cascade the recommended initiatives to ensure accountability and transparency for the ultimate achievement and sustainability of future results.
Enable - Customer Technology Services Once the design of the customer experience is completed, our ability to architect, deploy and host or manage the client's customer management environments becomes a key enabler to achieving and sustaining the client's customer experience vision. Given the proliferation of mobile communication technologies and devices, we enable our clients' operations to interact with their customers across the growing array of channels including email, social networks, mobile, web, SMS text, voice and chat. We design, implement and manage cloud, on-premise or hybrid customer management environments to deliver a consistent and superior experience across all touch points on a global scale that we believe result in higher quality, lower costs and reduced risk for our clients.
Manage - Customer Management Services We redesign and manage clients' front-to-back office processes to deliver just-in-time, personalized, multi-channel interactions. Our front-office solutions seamlessly integrate voice, chat, e-mail, ecommerce and social media to optimize the customer experience for our clients. In addition, we manage certain back-office processes for our clients to enhance their ability to obtain a customer-centric view of their relationships and maximize operating efficiencies. Our delivery of integrated business processes via our onshore, offshore or work-from-home associates reduces operating costs and allows customer needs to be met more quickly and efficiently, resulting in higher satisfaction, brand loyalty and a stronger competitive position for our clients.
25 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Grow - Customer Growth Services We offer fully integrated sales and marketing solutions to help our clients boost revenue in new, fragmented or underpenetrated business-to-consumer or business-to-business markets. We deliver approximately $1 billion in client revenue annually via the acquisition, growth and retention of customers through a combination of our highly trained, client-dedicated sales professionals and our proprietary Revana Analytic Multichannel PlatformTM. This platform continuously aggregates individual customer information across all channels into one holistic view so as to ensure more relevant and personalized communications.
These communications are dynamically triggered to send the right message to the right customer at the right time via their preferred communication channel. The ability of our sales associates to be backed by a highly scalable, technology-enabled platform that delivers smarter, more targeted digital marketing messages over email, social networks, mobile, web, SMS text, voice and chat results in higher conversion rates at a lower overall cost for our clients.
See Note 3 to the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional discussion regarding the preparation of our segment information.
Our 2012 Financial Results In 2012, our revenue decreased 1.4% to $1,163 million over the 2011 year, which included a decrease of 1.3% or $14.8 million due to fluctuations in foreign currency rates. Revenue decreased $64.2 million related to the exit of unprofitable programs including our business in Spain, partially offset by the addition of 44 new clients and revenue from our acquisitions. Our 2012 income from operations decreased 16.0% to $78.5 million or 6.8% of revenue, from $93.5 million or 7.9% of revenue in 2011. Income from operations in 2012 included $22.9 million and $3.0 million of restructuring charges and asset impairments, respectively. Income from operations in 2011 included $3.7 million and $0.2 million of restructuring charges and impairments, respectively.
Our offshore delivery centers serve clients based both in North America and in other countries. Our offshore delivery capacity spans five countries with 18,000 workstations and currently represents 66% of our global delivery capabilities.
Revenue from services provided in these offshore locations was $492 million and represented 47% of our total revenue for 2012, as compared to $518 million and 47% of our total revenue for 2011, with both years excluding revenue from the five acquisitions.
Our cash flow from operations and available credit allowed us to finance a significant portion of our capital needs and stock repurchases through internally generated cash flows. At December 31, 2012, we had $164.5 million of cash and cash equivalents, total debt of $119.5 million, and a total debt to total capitalization ratio of 19.3%. During 2012, we repurchased 5.0 million shares of our common stock for $81.2 million under the stock repurchase program.
Since inception of the program through December 31, 2012, the Board has authorized the repurchase of shares up to an aggregate value of $537.3 million, of which we have purchased 37.2 million shares for $511.9 million.
26 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- We internally target capacity utilization in our delivery centers at 80% to 90% of our available workstations. As of December 31, 2012, the overall capacity utilization in our multi-client centers was 79%. The table below presents workstation data for our multi-client centers as of December 31, 2012 and 2011.
Dedicated and Managed Centers (2,545 and 2,761 workstations, at December 31, 2012 and 2011, respectively) are excluded from the workstation data as unused workstations in these facilities are not available for sale. Our utilization percentage is defined as the total number of utilized production workstations compared to the total number of available production workstations. We may change the designation of shared or dedicated centers based on the normal changes in our business environment and client needs.
December 31, 2012 December 31, 2011 Total Total Production % In Production % In Workstations In Use Use Workstations In Use Use Multi-client centers Sites open >1 year 23,403 18,602 79% 27,443 20,449 75% Sites open <1 year 1,334 964 72% 1,604 327 20% Total multi-client centers 24,737 19,566 79% 29,047 20,776 72% We continue to see demand from all geographic regions to utilize our offshore delivery capabilities and expect this trend to continue with our clients. In light of this trend, we plan to continue to selectively retain capacity and expand into new offshore markets. As we grow our offshore delivery capabilities and our exposure to foreign currency fluctuations increase, we continue to actively manage this risk via a multi-currency hedging program designed to minimize operating margin volatility.
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates Management's Discussion and Analysis of our financial condition and results of operations are based upon our Consolidated Financial Statements, which have been prepared in accordance with GAAP. The preparation of these financial statements requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenue and expenses as well as the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities. We regularly review our estimates and assumptions. These estimates and assumptions, which are based upon historical experience and on various other factors believed to be reasonable under the circumstances, form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources.
Reported amounts and disclosures may have been different had management used different estimates and assumptions or if different conditions had occurred in the periods presented. Below is a discussion of the policies that we believe may involve a high degree of judgment and complexity.
Revenue Recognition We recognize revenue when evidence of an arrangement exists, the delivery of service has occurred, the fee is fixed or determinable and collection is reasonably assured. The BPO inbound and outbound service fees are based on either a per minute, per hour, per transaction or per call basis. Certain client programs provide for adjustments to monthly billings based upon whether we achieve, exceed or fail certain performance criteria. Adjustments to monthly billings consist of contractual bonuses/penalties, holdbacks and other performance based contingencies. Revenue recognition is limited to the amount that is not contingent upon delivery of future services or meeting other specified performance conditions.
27 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Revenue also consists of services for agent training, program launch, professional consulting, fully-hosted or managed technology and learning innovation. These service offerings may contain multiple element arrangements whereby we determine if those service offerings represent separate units of accounting. A deliverable constitutes a separate unit of accounting when it has standalone value and delivery or performance of the undelivered items is considered probable and substantially within our control. If those deliverables are determined to be separate units of accounting, revenue is recognized as services are provided. If those deliverables are not determined to be separate units of accounting, revenue for the delivered services are bundled into one unit of accounting and recognized over the life of the arrangement or at the time all services and deliverables have been delivered and satisfied. We allocate revenue to each of the deliverables based on a selling price hierarchy of vendor specific objective evidence ("VSOE"), third-party evidence, and then estimated selling price. VSOE is based on the price charged when the deliverable is sold separately. Third-party evidence is based on largely interchangeable competitor services in standalone sales to similarly situated customers.
Estimated selling price is based on our best estimate of what the selling prices of deliverables would be if they were sold regularly on a standalone basis.
Estimated selling price is established considering multiple factors including, but not limited to, pricing practices in different geographies, service offerings, and customer classifications. Once we allocate revenue to each deliverable, we recognize revenue when all revenue recognition criteria are met.
Periodically, we will make certain expenditures related to acquiring contracts or provide up-front discounts for future services. These expenditures are capitalized as Contract Acquisition Costs and amortized in proportion to the expected future revenue from the contract, which in most cases results in straight-line amortization over the life of the contract. Amortization of these costs is recorded as a reduction to revenue.
Income Taxes Accounting for income taxes requires recognition of deferred tax assets and liabilities for the expected future income tax consequences of transactions that have been included in the Consolidated Financial Statements or tax returns.
Under this method, deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined based on the difference between the financial statement and tax basis of assets and liabilities using tax rates in effect for the year in which the differences are expected to reverse. When circumstances warrant, we assess the likelihood that our net deferred tax assets will more likely than not be recovered from future projected taxable income.
We continually review the likelihood that deferred tax assets will be realized in future tax periods under the "more-likely-than-not" criteria. In making this judgment, we consider all available evidence, both positive and negative, in determining whether, based on the weight of that evidence, a valuation allowance is required.
We follow a two-step approach to recognizing and measuring uncertain tax positions. The first step is to determine if the weight of available evidence indicates that it is more likely than not that the tax position will be sustained on audit. The second step is to estimate and measure the tax benefit as the amount that has a greater than 50% likelihood of being realized upon ultimate settlement with the tax authority. We evaluate these uncertain tax positions on a quarterly basis. This evaluation is based on the consideration of several factors including changes in facts or circumstances, changes in applicable tax law, and settlement of issues under audit.
Interest and penalties relating to income taxes and uncertain tax positions are accrued net of tax in Provision for income taxes in the accompanying Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income.
28 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- In the future, our effective tax rate could be adversely affected by several factors, many of which are outside our control. Our effective tax rate is affected by the proportion of revenue and income before taxes in the various domestic and international jurisdictions in which we operate. Further, we are subject to changing tax laws, regulations and interpretations in multiple jurisdictions in which we operate, as well as the requirements, pronouncements and rulings of certain tax, regulatory and accounting organizations. We estimate our annual effective tax rate each quarter based on a combination of actual and forecasted results of subsequent quarters. Consequently, significant changes in our actual quarterly or forecasted results may impact the effective tax rate for the current or future periods.
Allowance for Doubtful Accounts We have established an allowance for doubtful accounts to reserve for uncollectible accounts receivable. Each quarter, management reviews the receivables on an account-by-account basis and assigns a probability of collection. Management's judgment is used in assessing the probability of collection. Factors considered in making this judgment include, among other things, the age of the identified receivable, client financial condition, previous client payment history and any recent communications with the client.
Impairment of Long-Lived Assets We evaluate the carrying value of property, plant and equipment and definite-lived intangible assets for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount may not be recoverable. An asset is considered to be impaired when the forecasted undiscounted cash flows of an asset group are estimated to be less than its carrying value. The amount of impairment recognized is the difference between the carrying value of the asset group and its fair value. Fair value estimates are based on assumptions concerning the amount and timing of estimated future cash flows and assumed discount rates.
Goodwill and Indefinite-Lived Intangible Assets We evaluate goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets for possible impairment at least annually or whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of such assets may not be recoverable. Similar to goodwill, the Company may first use a qualitative analysis to assess the realizability of its indefinite-lived intangible assets. The qualitative analysis will include a review of changes in economic, market and industry conditions, business strategy, cost factors, and financial performance, among others, to determine if there would be a significant decline to the fair value of an indefinite-lived intangible asset. If a quantitative analysis is completed, an indefinite-lived intangible asset (a trade name) is evaluated for possible impairment by comparing the fair value of the asset with its carrying value. Fair value was estimated as the discounted value of future revenues arising from a trade name using a royalty rate that a market participant would pay for use of that trade name. An impairment charge is recorded if the trade name's carrying value exceeds its estimated fair value.
We use a three step process to assess the realizability of goodwill based on recently adopted accounting guidance. The first step, Step 0, is a qualitative assessment that analyzes current economic indicators associated with a particular reporting unit. For example, we analyze changes in economic, market and industry conditions, business strategy, cost factors, and financial performance, among others, to determine if there would be a significant decline to the fair value of a particular reporting unit. A qualitative assessment also includes analyzing the excess fair value of a reporting unit over its carrying value from impairment assessments performed in previous years. If the qualitative assessment indicates a stable or improved fair value, no further testing is required.
If a qualitative assessment indicates that a significant decline to fair value of a reporting unit is more likely than not, or if a reporting unit's fair value has historically been closer to its carrying value, we will proceed to Step 1 testing where we calculate the fair value of a reporting unit based on discounted future probability-weighted cash flows. If Step 1 indicates that the carrying value of a reporting unit is in excess of its fair value, we will proceed to Step 2 where the fair value of the reporting unit will be allocated to assets and liabilities as it would in a business combination. Impairment occurs when the carrying amount of goodwill exceeds its estimated fair value calculated in Step 2.
29 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- We estimate fair value using discounted cash flows of the reporting units. The most significant assumptions used in these analyses are those made in estimating future cash flows. In estimating future cash flows, we use financial assumptions in our internal forecasting model such as projected capacity utilization, projected changes in the prices we charge for our services, projected labor costs, as well as contract negotiation status. The financial and credit market volatility directly impacts our fair value measurement through our weighted average cost of capital that we use to determine our discount rate. We use a discount rate we consider appropriate for the country where the business unit is providing services. As of December 1, 2012, the Company's assessment of goodwill impairment indicated that for all but one reporting unit, the fair values of the Company's reporting units were substantially in excess of their estimated carrying values, and therefore goodwill in these reporting units was not impaired. For the one reporting unit where fair value is not substantially in excess of carrying value, the likelihood of impairment is greater if there is a change to any of the assumptions used in the calculation of fair value. Refer to the notes to the consolidated financial statements for more information on the assumptions used. If actual results differ substantially from the assumptions used in performing the impairment test, the fair value of the reporting units may be significantly lower, causing the carrying value to exceed the fair value and indicating an impairment has occurred.
Restructuring Liability We routinely assess the profitability and utilization of our delivery centers and existing markets. In some cases, we have chosen to close under-performing delivery centers and complete reductions in workforce to enhance future profitability. Severance payments that occur from reductions in workforce are in accordance with postemployment plans and/or statutory requirements that are communicated to all employees upon hire date; therefore, we recognize severance liabilities when they are determined to be probable and reasonably estimable.
Other liabilities for costs associated with an exit or disposal activity are recognized when the liability is incurred, rather than upon commitment to a plan.
Equity-Based Compensation Expense Equity-based compensation expense for all share-based payment awards granted is determined based on the grant-date fair value. We recognize equity-based compensation expense net of an estimated forfeiture rate, and recognize compensation expense only for shares that are expected to vest on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period of the award, which is typically the vesting term of the share-based payment award. We estimate the forfeiture rate annually based on historical experience of forfeited awards.
Fair Value Measurement We determine the fair value of our various assets and liabilities based on a framework which measures fair value. The framework requires fair value to be determined based on the exchange price that would be received for an asset or paid to transfer a liability (an exit price) in the principal or most advantageous market for the asset or liability in an orderly transaction between market participants. We utilize market data or assumptions that we believe market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability, assumptions about counterparty credit risk, including the ability of each party to execute its obligation under the contract, and the risks inherent in the inputs to the valuation technique. These inputs can be readily observable, market corroborated or generally unobservable.
We primarily apply the market approach for recurring fair value measurements and endeavor to utilize the best available information. Accordingly, we utilize valuation techniques that maximize the use of observable inputs and minimize the use of unobservable inputs. We are able to classify fair value balances based on the observability of those inputs.
The valuation techniques we use establish a fair value hierarchy that prioritizes the inputs used to measure fair value. The hierarchy gives the highest priority to unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities (Level 1 measurement) and the lowest priority to unobservable inputs (Level 3 measurement). The three levels of the fair value hierarchy are as follows: 30 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Level 1 Quoted prices are available in active markets for identical assets or liabilities as of the reporting date. Active markets are those in which transactions for the asset or liability occur in sufficient frequency and volume to provide pricing information on an ongoing basis. Level 1 primarily consists of financial instruments such as exchange-traded derivatives, listed equities and U.S. government treasury securities.
Level 2 Pricing inputs are other than quoted prices in active markets included in Level 1, which are either directly or indirectly observable as of the reporting date. Level 2 includes those financial instruments that are valued using models or other valuation methodologies. These models are primarily industry-standard models that consider various assumptions, including quoted forward prices for commodities, time value, volatility factors, and current market and contractual prices for the underlying instruments, as well as other relevant economic measures. Substantially all of these assumptions are observable in the marketplace throughout the full term of the instrument, can be derived from observable data or are supported by observable levels at which transactions are executed in the marketplace. Instruments in this category include non-exchange-traded derivatives such as over-the-counter forwards, options and repurchase agreements.
Level 3 Pricing inputs include significant inputs that are generally less observable from objective sources. These inputs may be used with internally developed methodologies that result in management's best estimate of fair value from the perspective of a market participant. Level 3 instruments include those that may be more structured or otherwise tailored to customers' needs. At each balance sheet date, we perform an analysis of all instruments subject to fair value measurements and include in Level 3 all of those whose fair value is based on significant unobservable inputs.
Derivatives We enter into foreign exchange forward and option contracts to reduce our exposure to foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations that are associated with forecasted revenue in non-functional currencies. We enter into interest rate swaps to reduce our exposure to interest rate fluctuations on our variable rate debt. Upon proper qualification, these contracts are accounted for as cash flow hedges under current accounting standards. From time-to-time, we also enter into foreign exchange forward contracts to hedge our net investment in a foreign operation.
All derivative financial instruments are reported in the accompanying Consolidated Balance Sheets at fair value. Changes in fair value of derivative instruments designated as cash flow hedges are recorded in Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss), a component of Stockholders' Equity, to the extent they are deemed effective. Based on the criteria established by current accounting standards, all of our cash flow hedge contracts are deemed to be highly effective. Changes in fair value of any net investment hedge are recorded in cumulative translation adjustment in Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) in the accompanying Consolidated Balance Sheets offsetting the change in cumulative translation adjustment attributable to the hedged portion of our net investment in the foreign operation. Any realized gains or losses resulting from the foreign currency cash flow hedges are recognized together with the hedged transactions within Revenue. Any realized gains or losses resulting from the interest rate swaps are recognized in interest income (expense). Gains and losses from the settlements of our net investment hedges remain in Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) until partial or complete liquidation of the applicable net investment.
We also enter into fair value derivative contracts to reduce our exposure to foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations associated with changes in asset and liability balances. Changes in the fair value of derivative instruments designated as fair value hedges affect the carrying value of the asset or liability hedged, with changes in both the derivative instrument and the hedged asset or liability being recognized in Other income (expense), net in the accompanying Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income.
31 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- While we expect that our derivative instruments will continue to be highly effective and in compliance with applicable accounting standards, if our hedges did not qualify as highly effective or if we determine that forecasted transactions will not occur, the changes in the fair value of the derivatives used as hedges would be reflected currently in earnings.
Contingencies We record a liability for pending litigation and claims where losses are both probable and reasonably estimable. Each quarter, management reviews all litigation and claims on a case-by-case basis and assigns probability of loss and range of loss.
Explanation of Key Metrics and Other Items Cost of Services Cost of services principally include costs incurred in connection with our customer management services, including direct labor, telecommunications, technology costs, printing, sales and use tax and certain fixed costs associated with the delivery centers. In addition, cost of services includes income related to grants we may receive from local or state governments as an incentive to locate delivery centers in their jurisdictions which reduce the cost of services for those facilities.
Selling, General and Administrative Selling, general and administrative expenses primarily include costs associated with administrative services such as sales, marketing, product development, legal settlements, legal, information systems (including core technology and telephony infrastructure) and accounting and finance. It also includes outside professional fees (i.e., legal and accounting services), building expense for non-delivery center facilities and other items associated with general business administration.
Restructuring Charges, Net Restructuring charges, net primarily include costs incurred in conjunction with reductions in force or decisions to exit facilities, including termination benefits and lease liabilities, net of expected sublease rentals.
Interest Expense Interest expense includes interest expense and amortization of debt issuance costs associated with our debts and capitalized lease obligations.
Other Income The main components of other income are miscellaneous income not directly related to our operating activities, such as foreign exchange transaction gains.
Other Expenses The main components of other expenses are expenditures not directly related to our operating activities, such as foreign exchange transaction losses.
32 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Presentation of Non-GAAP Measurements Free Cash Flow Free cash flow is a non-GAAP liquidity measurement. We believe that free cash flow is useful to our investors because it measures, during a given period, the amount of cash generated that is available for debt obligations and investments other than purchases of property, plant and equipment. Free cash flow is not a measure determined by GAAP and should not be considered a substitute for "income from operations," "net income," "net cash provided by operating activities," or any other measure determined in accordance with GAAP. We believe this non-GAAP liquidity measure is useful, in addition to the most directly comparable GAAP measure of "net cash provided by operating activities," because free cash flow includes investments in operational assets. Free cash flow does not represent residual cash available for discretionary expenditures, since it includes cash required for debt service. Free cash flow also includes cash that may be necessary for acquisitions, investments and other needs that may arise.
The following table reconciles net cash provided by operating activities to free cash flow for our consolidated results (amounts in thousands): Year Ended December 31, 2012 2011 2010 Net cash provided by operating activities $ 106,920 $ 113,799 $ 134,455 Less: Purchases of property, plant and equipment 40,543 (1) 38,310 (1) 26,800 (1) Free cash flow $ 66,377 $ 75,489 $ 107,655 (1) Purchases of property, plant and equipment for the years ended December 31, 2012, 2011, and 2010 are net of proceeds from a government grant of $0.1 million, $0.4 million, and zero, respectively.
We discuss factors affecting free cash flow between periods in the "Liquidity and Capital Resources" section below.
33 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- RESULTS OF OPERATIONS Year Ended December 31, 2012 Compared to December 31, 2011 The tables included in the following sections are presented to facilitate an understanding of Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations and present certain information by segment for the years ended December 31, 2012 and 2011 (amounts in thousands). All inter-company transactions between the reported segments for the periods presented have been eliminated.
Customer Management Services Year Ended December 31, 2012 2011 $ Change % Change Revenue $ 923,774 $ 983,627 $ (59,853) -6.1% Operating Income 60,271 71,945 (11,674) -16.2% The decrease in revenue for the Customer Management Services segment was attributable to a $50.9 million net increase in client programs offset by a $64.2 million reduction related to the exit of certain unprofitable programs including our business in Spain, program completions of $33.5 million, and a $13.1 million decrease in realized gains on cash flow hedges and negative changes in foreign exchange translation.
The operating income as a percentage of revenue decreased to 6.5% in 2012 as compared to 7.3% in 2011. During 2012, we recorded $15.5 million in restructuring and impairment charges as a result of our decision to exit Spain and an incremental $8.2 million in restructuring charges and impairment in other locations to better align our capacity and workforce with the current business needs. These charges were offset in part by increases in margins based on the rationalization of unprofitable programs as described above and the related reduction in capacity. The margin also benefited from a $4.6 million accrual release for salaries expense due to an authoritative ruling in Spain related to the legally required cost of living adjustments for our employees' salaries, a $4.8 million decrease in depreciation expense related to assets which are now fully depreciated, and $3.7 million related to the finalization of certain real estate and employee related expenses.
Customer Growth Services Year Ended December 31, 2012 2011 $ Change % Change Revenue $ 100,772 $ 95,629 $ 5,143 5.4% Operating Income 2,258 6,387 (4,129) -64.6% The increase in revenue for the Customer Growth Services segment was due to a net increase in client programs of $18.2 million offset by program completions of $13.1 million.
The operating income as a percentage of revenue decreased to 2.2% in 2012 as compared to 6.7% in 2011. This decline was primarily due to a $1.8 million charge related to the impairment of the trade-name intangible asset due to the rebranding of our Direct Alliance subsidiary to Revana™ during the first quarter of 2012, other expenses incurred in connection with this rebranding, and increases in employee related expenses including salaries and benefits.
Customer Technology Services Year Ended December 31, 2012 2011 $ Change % Change Revenue $ 96,848 $ 66,978 $ 29,870 44.6% Operating Income 15,714 13,652 2,062 15.1% 34 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- The increase in revenue for the Customer Technology Services segment was primarily related to a full year of operations for our 2011 acquisition of eLoyalty Corporation ("eLoyalty") which occurred on May 28, 2011.
The operating income as a percentage of revenue decreased to 16.2% in 2012 as compared to 20.4% in 2011. This decrease was related to the acquisition of eLoyalty as discussed above which results in a change in the mix of revenue from purely hosted solutions to both hosted and managed solutions. There were also investments in sales and marketing and additional amortization expense for the customer relationship asset related to the acquisition of eLoyalty.
Customer Strategy Services Year Ended December 31, 2012 2011 $ Change % Change Revenue $ 41,587 $ 33,154 $ 8,433 25.4% Operating Income 302 1,470 (1,168) -79.5% The increase in revenue for the Customer Strategy Services segment was due to an $8.9 million increase due to the acquisition of iKnowtion, LLC ("iKnowtion") and Guidon Performance Solutions ("Guidon") and a $0.5 million net increase in consulting revenue partially offset by a $1.0 million decrease due to negative changes in foreign exchange translations.
The operating income as a percentage of revenue decreased to 0.7% in 2012 as compared to 4.4% in 2011. This decrease was related to an increased investment in geographic expansion, additional amortization expense for the customer relationship assets of iKnowtion and Guidon and negative changes in foreign exchange translation, offset partially by the acquisitions of iKnowtion and Guidon.
Other Income (Expense) For 2012, interest income decreased to $3.0 million from $3.1 million in 2011.
Interest expense increased to $6.7 million during 2012 from $5.1 million during 2011. This increase was due to a higher outstanding balance on our credit facility and additional expense related to the interest rate swap arrangements.
Income Taxes The reported effective tax rate for 2012 was (0.1)% as compared to 14.5% for 2011. The effective tax rate for 2012 was impacted by earnings in international jurisdictions currently under an income tax holiday, and a $7.6 million tax benefit related to Australia and New Zealand transfer pricing, a $1.4 million benefit from the release of uncertain tax positions, a $9.2 million benefit related to restructuring charges, a $1.9 million benefit related to return to provision adjustments and $0.1 million of expense related to other discrete items. Without these items our effective tax rate for the year ended December 31, 2012 would have been 19.9%. In the year ended December 31, 2011, our effective tax rate would have been 19.7% without a $8.7 million expense related to the adverse decision by the Canada Revenue Agency regarding our request for relief from double taxation, a $11.7 million benefit related to our mediated settlement with the IRS related to U.S. tax refund claims, a $1.4 million benefit related to the foreign earnings repatriation and a $0.3 million benefit for other discrete items recognized during the period.
35 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- RESULTS OF OPERATIONS Year Ended December 31, 2011 Compared to 2010 The tables included in the following sections are presented to facilitate an understanding of Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations and present certain information by segment for the years ended December 31, 2011 and 2010 (amounts in thousands). All inter-company transactions between the reported segments for the periods presented have been eliminated.
Customer Management Services Year Ended December 31, 2011 2010 $ Change % Change Revenue $ 983,627 $ 1,001,520 $ (17,893) -1.8% Operating Income 71,945 62,403 9,542 15.3% The decrease in revenue for the Customer Management Services segment was attributable to a $1.0 million net increase in client programs and a $23.1 million increase in realized gains on cash flow hedges and changes in foreign exchange translation, offset by program completions of $42.0 million.
The operating income as a percentage of revenue increased to 7.3% for 2011 as compared to 6.2% in 2010. During 2011, we recorded $3.5 million in restructuring charges to better align our capacity and workforce with the current business needs as compared to $13.5 million during 2010. The increase in operating income was also due to an $8.9 million decrease in depreciation expense related to assets which are now fully depreciated and decreases in telecommunication and facility and occupancy expenses.
Customer Growth Services Year Ended December 31, 2011 2010 $ Change % Change Revenue $ 95,629 $ 78,991 $ 16,638 21.1% Operating Income 6,387 4,305 2,082 48.4% The increase in revenue for the Customer Growth Services segment was due to a net increase in client programs of $28.9 million partially offset by program completions of $12.3 million.
The operating income as a percentage of revenue increased to 6.7% in 2011 as compared to 5.4% in 2010. This increase was directly attributable to the revenue increase noted above.
Customer Technology Services Year Ended December 31, 2011 2010 $ Change % Change Revenue $ 66,978 $ 12,123 $ 54,855 452.5% Operating Income 13,652 7,316 6,336 86.6% The increase in revenue for the Customer Technology Services segment was related to the acquisition of eLoyalty on May 28, 2011.
The operating income as a percentage of revenue decreased to 20.4% in 2011 as compared to 60.3% in 2010. This decrease was related to the acquisition of eLoyalty as discussed above which results in a change in the mix of revenue from purely hosted solutions to both hosted and managed solutions. There were also additional investments in sales and marketing and additional amortization expense for the customer relationship asset related to the acquisition of eLoyalty.
36 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Customer Strategy Services Year Ended December 31, 2011 2010 $ Change % Change Revenue $ 33,154 $ 2,272 $ 30,882 1359.2% Operating Income 1,470 (279) 1,749 626.9% The increase in revenue for the Customer Strategy Services segment was due to the acquisition of Peppers & Rogers Group in November, 2010.
The operating income as a percentage of revenue increased to 4.4% for 2012 as compared to (12.3)% in 2010. This increase was related to the acquisition of Peppers & Rogers as described above.
Other Income (Expense) For 2011, interest income increased to $3.1 million from $2.1 million in 2010, primarily due to higher cash and cash equivalent balances. Interest expense increased to $5.1 million during 2011 from $3.2 million during 2010. This increase was due to a higher outstanding balance on our credit facility. Other income (expense) decreased during 2011 as a result of the 2010 settlement of a Newgen Results Corporation legal claim which resulted in a gain of $5.9 million in 2010 (see Note 23 to the accompanying Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements).
Income Taxes The effective tax rate for 2011 was 14.5% as compared to an effective tax rate of 34.7% in 2010. The 2011 effective tax rate was negatively influenced by an adverse decision by the Canada Revenue Agency regarding the Company's request for relief from double taxation, and benefitted from a mediated settlement with the IRS related to U.S. tax refund claims, a reduction in the incremental U.S.
tax expense (versus the estimate recorded in the fourth quarter of 2010) related to the Company's 2010 repatriation of $105 million of foreign earnings, earnings reported in international jurisdictions currently under an income tax holiday, and the distribution of income between the U.S. and international tax jurisdictions. Without the $8.7 million expense related to the adverse decision by the Canada Revenue Agency regarding the Company's request for relief from double taxation, the $11.7 million benefit related to the Company's mediated settlement with the IRS related to U.S. tax refund claims, the $1.4 million benefit related to the foreign earnings repatriation, and $0.3 million benefit for other discrete items recognized during the period, the Company's effective tax rate for 2011 would have been 19.7%.
37 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Liquidity and Capital Resources Our principal sources of liquidity are our cash generated from operations, our cash and cash equivalents, and borrowings under our Credit Agreement, dated October 1, 2010 as amended March 27, 2012 (the "Credit Agreement"). During the year ended December 31, 2012, we generated positive operating cash flows of $106.9 million. We believe that our cash generated from operations, existing cash and cash equivalents, and available credit will be sufficient to meet expected operating and capital expenditure requirements for the next 12 months.
We manage a centralized global treasury function in the United States with a focus on concentrating and safeguarding our global cash and cash equivalents.
While the majority of our cash is held offshore, we prefer to hold U.S. Dollars in addition to the local currencies of our foreign subsidiaries. We expect to use our offshore cash to support working capital and growth of our foreign operations. While there are no assurances, we believe our global cash is protected given our cash management practices, banking partners, and utilization of diversified, high quality investments.
We have global operations that expose us to foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations that may positively or negatively impact our liquidity. We are also exposed to higher interest rates associated with our variable rate debt. To mitigate these risks, we enter into foreign exchange forward and option contracts and interest rate swaps through our cash flow hedging program. Please refer to Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk, Foreign Currency Risk, for further discussion.
We primarily utilize our Credit Agreement to fund working capital, general operations, stock repurchases and other strategic activities, such as the acquisitions described in Note 2 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements. As of December 31, 2012 and December 31, 2011, we had borrowings of $108.0 million and $64.0 million, respectively, under our Credit Agreement, and our average daily utilization was $154.5 million and $112.4 million for the years ended December 31, 2012 and 2011, respectively. After consideration for issued letters of credit under the Credit Agreement, totaling $3.8 million, our remaining borrowing capacity was $388.2 million as of December 31, 2012. As of December 31, 2012, we were in compliance with all covenants and conditions under our Credit Agreement.
The amount of capital required over the next 12 months will depend on our levels of investment in infrastructure necessary to maintain, upgrade or replace existing assets. Our working capital and capital expenditure requirements could also increase materially in the event of acquisitions or joint ventures, among other factors. These factors could require that we raise additional capital through future debt or equity financing. We can provide no assurance that we will be able to raise additional capital upon commercially reasonable terms acceptable to us.
The following discussion highlights our cash flow activities during the years ended December 31, 2012, 2011, and 2010.
Cash and Cash Equivalents We consider all liquid investments purchased within 90 days of their original maturity to be cash equivalents. Our cash and cash equivalents totaled $164.5 million and $156.4 million as of December 31, 2012 and 2011, respectively. We diversify the holdings of such cash and cash equivalents considering the financial condition and stability of the counterparty institutions.
38 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Cash Flows from Operating Activities We reinvest our cash flows from operating activities in our business for strategic acquisitions and for the purchase of our outstanding stock. For the years 2012, 2011 and 2010 we reported net cash flows provided by operating activities of $106.9 million, $113.8 million and $134.5 million, respectively.
The decrease of $6.9 million from 2011 to 2012 was primarily due to incremental cash paid of $29.3 million for prepaid and other assets and a decrease in cash from net income of $1.1 million offset by increases in prepayments from customers of $18.7 million, increases in cash collected from accounts receivable of $6.2 million, and an increase of $1.4 million in payments made for operating expenses. The net decrease from 2010 to 2011 was primarily due to a $36.2 million decrease in accounts payable and accrued expenses, which includes the payment of $24.3 million for income taxes, and a $5.7 million decrease in the collection of accounts receivable, offset by a $24.7 million increase in net income.
Cash Flows from Investing Activities We reinvest cash in our business primarily to grow our client base and to expand our infrastructure. For the years 2012, 2011 and 2010, we reported net cash flows used in investing activities of $80.9 million, $86.9 million and $43.2 million, respectively. The net decrease in cash used from investing activities from 2011 to 2012 was primarily due to the $8.0 million decrease in acquisition related spending offset by a $2.0 million increase in capital expenditures. The net increase in cash used from investing activities from 2010 to 2011 was primarily due to the $38.0 million payment for the acquisition of eLoyalty, and a $11.9 million increase in net capital expenditures, offset by a $4.9 million decrease from the $12.8 million payment for the acquisition of Peppers & Rogers Group during 2010.
Cash Flows from Financing Activities For the years 2012, 2011 and 2010, we reported net cash flows provided by (used in) financing activities of $(35.0) million, $15.9 million and $(85.9) million, respectively. The change from 2011 to 2012 was due to a decrease in net borrowings on our line of credit of $20.0 million, an increase in cash used to repurchase common stock of $17.6 million and a decrease in cash received from the exercise of stock options of $13.4 million. The change from 2010 to 2011 was due to an increase in net borrowings on our line of credit of $64.0 million and a decrease in cash used to repurchase common stock of $16.6 million.
Free Cash Flow Free cash flow (see "Presentation of Non-GAAP Measurements" above for the definition of free cash flow) was $66.4 million, $75.5 million and $107.7 million for the years 2012, 2011 and 2010, respectively. The decrease from 2011 to 2012 resulted primarily from the $6.9 million decrease in cash flow from operating activities and a $2.2 million increase in capital expenditures, net of grant monies received. The decrease from 2010 to 2011 resulted from the $20.7 million decrease in cash flow from operating activities and a $11.9 million increase in capital expenditures.
39 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Obligations and Future Capital Requirements Future maturities of our outstanding debt and contractual obligations as of December 31, 2012 are summarized as follows (amounts in thousands): Less than 1 to 3 3 to 5 Over 5 1 Year Years Years Years Total Credit Facility(1) $ 3,777 $ 114,873 $ 1,400 $ - $ 120,050 Equipment financing arrangements 5,433 5,880 209 - 11,522 Contingent consideration 1,100 10,526 2,919 - 14,545 Purchase obligations 15,414 17,449 261 - 33,124 Operating lease commitments 23,699 34,111 17,126 7,621 82,557 Total $ 49,423 $ 182,839 $ 21,915 $ 7,621 $ 261,798 (1) Includes estimated interest payments based on the weighted-average interest rate, unused commitment fees, current interest rate swap arrangements, and outstanding debt as of December 31, 2012.
† Contractual obligations to be paid in a foreign currency are translated at the period end exchange rate.
† Purchase obligations primarily consist of outstanding purchase orders for goods or services not yet received, which are not recognized as liabilities in our Consolidated Balance Sheets until such goods and/or services are received.
† The contractual obligation table excludes our liabilities of $0.4 million related to uncertain tax positions because we cannot reliably estimate the timing of future cash payments. See Note 11 to the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements for further discussion.
† The contractual obligations table excludes the contingent consideration arrangement associated with the PRG acquisition as we have estimated this liability to be zero at December 31, 2012 as described in Note 2 of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
Purchase Obligations Occasionally we contract with certain of our communications clients to provide us with telecommunication services. These clients currently represent approximately 15% of our total annual revenue. We believe these contracts are negotiated on an arm's-length basis and may be negotiated at different times and with different legal entities.
Future Capital Requirements We expect total capital expenditures in 2013 to be within the range of $50 to $60 million. Approximately 70% of these expected capital expenditures are to support growth in our business and 30% relates to the maintenance for existing assets. The anticipated level of 2013 capital expenditures is primarily dependent upon new client contracts and the corresponding requirements for additional delivery center capacity as well as enhancements to our technological infrastructure.
40 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- We may consider restructurings, dispositions, mergers, acquisitions and other similar transactions. Such transactions could include the transfer, sale or acquisition of significant assets, businesses or interests, including joint ventures or the incurrence, assumption, or refinancing of indebtedness and could be material to the consolidated financial condition and consolidated results of our operations. Our capital expenditures requirements could also increase materially in the event of acquisition or joint ventures. In addition, as of December 31, 2012, we were authorized to purchase an additional $25.4 million of common stock under our stock repurchase program (see Item 5. Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities in this Form 10-K). The stock repurchase program does not have an expiration date.
The launch of large client contracts may result in short-term negative working capital because of the time period between incurring the costs for training and launching the program and the beginning of the accounts receivable collection process. As a result, periodically we may generate negative cash flows from operating activities.
Debt Instruments and Related Covenants On October 1, 2010, we entered into the Credit Agreement with a syndicate of lenders led by KeyBank National Association, Wells Fargo Bank, National Association, Bank of America, N.A., BBVA Compass, and JPMorgan Chase Bank, N.A.
On March 27, 2012, we amended the Credit Agreement by increasing the aggregate commitment by $150.0 million to $500.0 million and revising certain definitions.
The Credit Agreement provides for a secured revolving credit facility that matures on September 30, 2015 with a maximum aggregate commitment of $500.0 million. At our discretion, direct borrowing options under the Credit Agreement include (i) Eurodollar loans with one, two, three, and six month terms, and/or (ii) overnight base rate loans. The Credit Agreement also provides for a sub-limit for loans or letters of credit in both U.S. Dollars and certain foreign currencies, with direct foreign subsidiary borrowing capabilities up to 50% of the total commitment amount.
Base rate loans bear interest at a rate equal to the greatest of (i) KeyBank National Association's prime rate, (ii) the federal funds effective rate plus 0.5% or (iii) the one month London Interbank Offered Rate plus 1.25%, in each case adding a margin based upon our leverage ratio. Eurodollar and alternate currency loans bear interest based upon LIBOR, as adjusted for prescribed bank reserves, plus a margin based upon our leverage ratio. Letter of credit fees are 1.25% of the stated amount of the letter of credit on the date of issuance, renewal or amendment, plus an annual fee equal to the borrowing margin for Eurodollar loans. Facility fees are payable to the Lenders in an amount equal to the unused portion of the credit facility and are based upon our leverage ratio.
Indebtedness under the Credit Agreement is guaranteed by certain of our present and future domestic subsidiaries and is secured by security interests (subject to permitted liens) in the U.S. accounts receivable and cash of the Company and certain of our domestic subsidiaries and may be secured by tangible assets of the Company and such domestic subsidiaries if borrowings by foreign subsidiaries exceed $50.0 million and the leverage ratio is greater than 2.50 to 1.00. We also pledged 65% of the voting stock and 100% of the non-voting stock of certain of the Company's material foreign subsidiaries and may pledge 65% of the voting stock and 100% of the non-voting stock of the Company's other foreign subsidiaries.
The Credit Agreement, which includes customary financial covenants, may be used for general corporate purposes, including working capital, purchases of treasury stock and acquisition financing. As of December 31, 2012, we were in compliance with all financial covenants. During 2012, 2011 and 2010, borrowings accrued interest at an average rate of approximately 1.6%, 1.6%, and 1.5% per annum, respectively, excluding unused commitment fees. Our daily average borrowings during 2012, 2011 and 2010 were $154.5 million, $112.4 million and $62.5 million, respectively. As of December 31, 2012 and 2011, we had borrowings outstanding of $108.0 million and $64.0 million, respectively, under the Credit Agreement. Availability was $388.2 million as of December 31, 2012, reduced from $500.0 million by the outstanding borrowing and by $3.8 million in issued letters of credit; and $281.5 million as of December 31, 2011, reduced from $350.0 million by the outstanding borrowing and by $4.5 million in issued letters of credit.
41 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- From time-to-time, we may have unsecured, uncommitted bank lines of credit to support working capital for a few foreign subsidiaries. As of December 31, 2012 and 2011, we had no foreign loans outstanding.
Client Concentration During 2012, one of our clients represented 10% of our total annual revenue. Our five largest clients accounted for 39%, 37% and 39% of our annual revenue for the years ended December 31, 2012, 2011 and 2010, respectively. We have long-term relationships with our top five clients, ranging from six to 17 years, with the majority of these clients having completed multiple contract renewals with TeleTech. The relative contribution of any single client to consolidated earnings is not always proportional to the relative revenue contribution on a consolidated basis and varies greatly based upon specific contract terms. In addition, clients may adjust business volumes served by us based on their business requirements. We believe the risk of this concentration is mitigated, in part, by the long-term contracts we have with our largest clients. Although certain client contracts may be terminated for convenience by either party, we believe this risk is mitigated, in part, by the service level disruptions and transition/migration costs that would arise for our clients.
The contracts with our five largest clients expire between 2014 and 2016.
Additionally, a particular client may have multiple contracts with different expiration dates. We have historically renewed most of our contracts with our largest clients. However, there is no assurance that future contracts will be renewed or, if renewed, will be on terms as favorable as the existing contracts.
Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements We discuss the potential impact of recent accounting pronouncements in Note 1 to the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
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