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[February 22, 2013]
ITRON INC /WA/ - 10-K - : MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS The following discussion and analysis should be read in conjunction with Item 8: "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data."
(Edgar Glimpses Via Acquire Media NewsEdge) Overview We are a technology company, offering end-to-end smart metering solutions to electric, natural gas, and water utilities around the world. Our smart metering solutions, meter data management software, and knowledge application solutions bring additional value to a utility's metering and grid systems. Our professional services help our customers project-manage, install, implement, operate, and maintain their systems.
As part of our global reorganization announced in the first quarter of 2011, we now manage and report under two operating segments, Energy and Water. The transition to the new organizational structure, including changes to operations, as well as financial and operational management systems, was completed in the first quarter of 2012. Our historical segment information for the years ended December 31, 2011 and 2010 has been recast to reflect our new operating segments.
The Energy operating segment includes our global electricity and gas products, while the Water operating segment includes our global water and heat products.
On May 1, 2012, we completed our acquisition of SmartSynch, Inc. (SmartSynch).
SmartSynch provides smart grid solutions that utilize cellular networks for communications. The acquisition strengthens our cellular communications offerings, and we believe the acquisition brings greater choice to utility customers across the spectrum of smart metering deployments. For further details regarding the acquisition of SmartSynch, refer to Item 8: "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, Note 17: Business Combinations." We have three measures of segment performance: revenue, gross profit (margin), and operating income (margin). Intersegment revenues were minimal. Corporate operating expenses, interest income, interest expense, other income (expense), and income tax provision (benefit) are not allocated to the segments, nor included in the measure of segment profit or loss.
Revenues decreased 11% in 2012, compared with 2011. The revenue decrease was due primarily to the completion of several large OpenWay® projects in the Energy segment, partially offset by a 1% increase in revenues in the Water segment.
Revenues increased 8% in 2011, compared with 2010. The 2011 revenue growth was driven by our Energy operating segment with an increase of $111.1 million, or 6%, in revenues in 2011, compared with 2010, while our Water operating segment increased $63.8 million, or 14%, from 2010.
Total backlog was $1.0 billion and twelve-month backlog was $568 million at December 31, 2012.
Total company gross margin increased 210 basis points in 2012, compared with 2011. Gross margin improvement over the prior year was driven by lower warranty costs in both the Energy and Water segments. Additionally, benefits from our restructuring actions and manufacturing efficiencies offset the impact of decreased volumes. Total company gross margin decreased 30 basis points in 2011, compared with 2010, primarily due to increased warranty charges in the Energy and Water operating segments.
Our restructuring projects continue as planned, and we expect to substantially complete these projects by the end of 2013, although we expect the disposition of certain manufacturing sites may require additional time beyond that date.
Since the announcement of these projects in October 2011, we have incurred $69.8 million in costs, representing approximately 90% of the total expected costs.
Total expected costs decreased by $7.7 million from December 31, 2011 to December 31, 2012, primarily as the result of gains on the dispositions of fixed assets and a correction to the amount of goodwill allocated to one of our non-core businesses sold as part of the restructuring process. In addition, expected severance costs were reduced as the result of certain employees, in positions that were eliminated under the restructuring project, filling vacant positions within the Company. Net restructuring expense of $1.7 million was recognized in 2012, primarily related to severance and environmental cleanup costs for sites expected to be sold, offset by the $5.4 million correction to the goodwill impairment. Restructuring expenses of $68.1 million were recognized in 2011, associated with severance accruals, the impairment of long-lived assets that will be sold, and other facility exit costs. For further details regarding the correction of the goodwill impairment, refer to Item 8: "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, Note 5: Goodwill." We have begun to realize benefits from our restructuring projects during 2012, and we expect full realization of the cost savings by the end of 2013 and into 2014. Revenues and net operating income from the activities we have exited or will exit under the restructuring plan are not material to our operating segments or consolidated results.
19-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Table of Contents Total Company Revenues, Gross Profit and Margin, and Unit Shipments Year Ended December 31, 2012 % Change 2011 % Change 2010 (in thousands) (in thousands) (in thousands) Revenues $ 2,178,178 (11)% $ 2,434,124 8% $ 2,259,271 Gross Profit $ 715,147 (4)% $ 746,458 7% $ 700,675 Gross Margin 32.8 % 30.7 % 31.0 % Year Ended December 31, 2012 2011 2010 (in thousands) Revenues by region United States and Canada $ 1,014,739 $ 1,182,775 $ 1,168,523 Europe, Middle East, and Africa (EMEA) 878,615 899,642 803,154 Other 284,824 351,707 287,594 Total revenues $ 2,178,178 $ 2,434,124 $ 2,259,271 Revenues Revenues decreased 11%, or $255.9 million, in 2012, compared with 2011. Revenues in 2012 were lower, primarily driven by the substantial completion of four of our five largest OpenWay projects in the Energy segment and by $92.2 million in the unfavorable net translation impact of operations denominated in foreign currencies, partially offset by an increase in Water revenues during the year.
Revenues increased 8%, or $174.9 million, in 2011, compared with 2010. The net translation effect of our operations denominated in foreign currencies accounted for $60.6 million of the increase in revenues for the year ended December 31, 2011, compared with 2010. A more detailed analysis of these fluctuations is provided in Operating Segment Results.
No single customer represented more than 10% of total revenues for the years ended December 31, 2012 and 2011. For the year ended December 31, 2010, one customer within our Energy operating segment, Southern California Edison, represented 11% of total revenues. Our 10 largest customers accounted for 27%, 33%, and 34% of total revenues in 2012, 2011, and 2010.
Gross Margins Gross margin was 32.8% for 2012, compared with 30.7% in 2011. The improvement was primarily the result of lower warranty costs in 2012 in both the Energy and Water segments, which positively impacted gross margin by 170 basis points.
Benefits from our restructuring projects and manufacturing efficiencies offset the impact of decreased volumes. Gross margin decreased by 30 basis points in 2011 when compared with 2010, primarily due to warranty charges incurred in the Energy and Water operating segments. A more detailed analysis of these fluctuations is provided in Operating Segment Results.
Meter and Module Summary We classify meters into three categories: • Standard metering - no built-in remote reading communication technology • Advanced metering - one-way communication of meter data • Smart metering - two-way communication including remote meter configuration and upgrade (consisting primarily of our OpenWay technology) 20 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Table of Contents In addition, advanced and smart meter communication modules can be sold separately from the meter. A summary of our meter and communication module shipments is as follows: Year Ended December 31, 2012 2011 2010 (units in thousands) Meters Standard 17,920 19,570 20,010 Advanced and smart 8,030 9,320 8,440 Total meters 25,950 28,890 28,450 Stand-alone communication modules Advanced and smart 6,460 6,330 5,960 Operating Segment Results For a description of our operating segments, refer to Item 8: "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, Note 16: Segment Information" in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The following tables and discussion highlight significant changes in trends or components of each operating segment.
Year Ended December 31, 2012 % Change 2011 % Change 2010 Segment Revenues (in thousands) (in thousands) (in thousands) Energy Electricity $ 1,024,340 (17)% $ 1,239,428 5% $ 1,185,892 Gas 627,193 (7)% 672,999 9% 615,450 Total Energy 1,651,533 (14)% 1,912,427 6% 1,801,342 Water 526,645 1% 521,697 14% 457,929 Total revenues $ 2,178,178 (11)% $ 2,434,124 8% $ 2,259,271 Year Ended December 31, 2012 2011 2010 Gross Profit Gross Margin Gross Profit Gross Margin Gross Profit Gross Margin Segment Gross Profit and Margin (in thousands) (in thousands) (in thousands) Energy $ 530,396 32.1% $ 578,575 30.3% $ 541,900 30.1% Water 184,751 35.1% 167,883 32.2% 158,775 34.7% Total gross profit and margin $ 715,147 32.8% $ 746,458 30.7% $ 700,675 31.0% Year Ended December 31, 2012 2011 2010 Operating Operating Operating Operating Operating Operating Income (Loss) Margin Income (Loss) Margin Income (Loss) Margin Segment Operating Income (Loss) and Operating Margin (in thousands) (in thousands) (in thousands) Energy $ 135,369 8% $ (112,831 ) (6)% $ 184,163 10% Water 59,210 11% (303,772 ) (58)% 43,611 10% Corporate unallocated (43,453 ) (42,580 ) (43,577 ) Total Company $ 151,126 7% $ (459,183 ) (19)% $ 184,197 8% Energy: Revenues - 2012 vs. 2011 Electricity revenues for 2012 decreased by $215.1 million, or 17%, compared with 2011 revenues. The decrease was primarily driven by $207.6 million in lower OpenWay project revenue in North America, as four of our five largest OpenWay projects were substantially completed during 2012. This revenue decrease in North America was partially offset by $21.8 million of revenue 21-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Table of Contents increase as a result of the SmartSynch acquisition in May 2012. Lower prepayment meter shipments drove a decrease of $27.3 million in our Asia/Pacific region, which was partially offset by $23.0 million in higher revenue from increased product shipments and service in EMEA. The net translation effect of our operations in foreign currencies negatively impacted 2012 revenues by $34.4 million.
Gas revenues decreased by $45.8 million, or 7%, in 2012, compared to 2011, including $27.7 million for the impact of unfavorable exchange rates for our revenues denominated in foreign currencies. The decrease was driven by lower communication module shipments and lower service revenue, partially offset by increased gas meter shipments, particularly smart meters. The overall decrease is due to typical period-to-period fluctuations in timing of customer projects.
One customer represented 11% of the Energy operating segment revenues in 2012, and a different customer represented 11% of the Energy operating segment revenues in 2011.
Revenues - 2011 vs. 2010 Electricity revenues for 2011 increased by $53.5 million, or 5%, compared with 2010 revenues. Revenues for OpenWay electricity projects increased by $12.6 million, while revenues for prepayment meters in Asia/Pacific and Africa provided the balance of the increase.
Gas revenues increased by $57.5 million, or 9%, in 2011, compared to 2010, driven by increases in smart gas modules in North America and gas meters in Europe and Asia, partially offset by a $26.1 million decrease in OpenWay gas projects.
Two customers individually represented 14% and 10% of the Energy operating segment revenues in 2010.
Gross Margin - 2012 vs. 2011 Gross margin was 32.1% in 2012, compared with 30.3% in 2011. The improved margin was primarily driven by $23.8 million in lower warranty expense in 2012, as well as improved manufacturing efficiencies, global procurement, and the realization of the benefits of our restructuring activities.
Gross Margin - 2011 vs. 2010 Gross margin was 30.3% in 2011, compared with 30.1% in 2010. Increased revenues and margins for smart gas communication modules and non-OpenWay services were partially offset by higher warranty charges of $7.4 million in 2011.
Operating Expenses - 2012 vs. 2011 Energy operating expenses decreased by $296.4 million, or 43%, for 2012 when compared to 2011, primarily due to the goodwill impairment of $254.7 million recognized in 2011for the Electricity reporting unit and $48.9 million in lower restructuring expenses in 2012. Foreign exchange rates also favorably impacted operating expenses by $17.0 million. Sales and marketing and product development expenses increased over prior year by $31.6 million, primarily as the result of the development of new and enhanced products and in preparation for sales opportunities in developing markets. Operating expenses, consisting of sales and marketing, product development, general and administrative, and amortization of intangible assets, as a percentage of revenues, were 24% in 2012 and 20% in 2011.
Operating Expenses - 2011 vs. 2010 Energy operating expenses in 2011 included a goodwill impairment charge of $254.7 million associated with the Electricity reporting unit. Operating expenses included restructuring expenses of $51.9 million primarily associated with accrued severance and asset impairments. Operating expenses for sales and marketing, product development, general and administrative, and amortization of intangible assets increased $27.1 million, or 8%, in 2011, primarily due to increased product development costs for new and enhanced products. This increase was partially offset by scheduled decreases in amortization of intangible assets and decreased bonus, profit sharing, and employee savings plan match expenses.
Operating expenses, consisting of sales and marketing, product development, general and administrative, and amortization of intangible assets, as a percentage of revenues were 20% in 2011 and 2010.
Water: Revenues - 2012 vs. 2011 Revenues increased $4.9 million, or 1%, in 2012, while the translation effect of a stronger U.S. dollar against most foreign currencies during 2012 negatively impacted revenues by 6%. All regions provided increases during 2012.
No single customer represented more than 10% of the Water operating segment's revenues in 2012, 2011, and 2010.
22-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Table of Contents Revenues - 2011 vs. 2010 Revenues increased $63.8 million, or 14%, in 2011, primarily driven by increased meter and smart module shipments in Europe. In addition, the net translation effect of foreign currencies into the U.S. dollar accounted for $15.0 million of the increase in revenues.
Gross Margin - 2012 vs. 2011 Water gross margin increased to 35.1% in 2012, compared with 32.2% in 2011, primarily driven by $12.4 million in lower warranty expense in 2012 and favorable product mix, which were partially offset by lower margin services for a large project in North America.
Gross Margin - 2011 vs. 2010 Water gross margin decreased to 32.2% in 2011, compared with 34.7% in 2010, primarily due to a combination of competitive pricing pressures and higher materials costs, including copper, as well as warranty charges of $12.6 million associated with a vendor supplied component.
Operating Expenses - 2012 vs. 2011 In 2012, Water operating expenses were $125.6 million compared to $471.7 million in 2011, including the favorable impact of foreign exchange rates of $7.6 million. Operating expenses in 2011 included a goodwill impairment charge of $330.1 million and $15.9 million in higher restructuring costs. Sales and marketing expenses in 2012 were $6.2 million higher than in 2011 due to investments in preparation for opportunities in developing markets. Product development expenses in 2012 were $4.5 million higher than in 2011 as the result of development of new and enhanced products to meet the demands of various markets. Operating expenses, consisting of sales and marketing, product development, general and administrative, and amortization of intangible assets, as a percentage of revenues, were 24% in 2012 and 2011.
Operating Expenses - 2011 vs. 2010 Water operating expenses in 2011 included a goodwill impairment charge of $330.1 million associated with the Water reporting unit. Operating expenses included restructuring expenses of $15.3 million primarily associated with accrued severance and asset impairments. Operating expenses for sales and marketing, product development, general and administrative, and amortization of intangible assets increased $11.1 million in 2011, compared with 2010. Operating expenses, consisting of sales and marketing, product development, general and administrative, and amortization of intangible assets, as a percentage of revenue were 24% in 2011, compared with 25% in 2010.
Corporate unallocated: Operating expenses not directly associated with an operating segment are classified as "Corporate unallocated." These expenses increased 2% to $43.5 million in 2012, compared with 2011, primarily due to acquisition related expenses for the SmartSynch acquisition, for management training and development costs in connection with the implementation of a new organizational structure, and for preliminary planning costs, prior to application development, for our global enterprise resource planning (ERP) software initiative. These increases were partially offset by lower corporate IT related and marketing spending.
Corporate unallocated expenses decreased 2% to $42.6 million in 2011, compared with 2010, primarily due to decreased bonus and profit sharing expense.
Operating Expenses The following table details our total operating expenses in dollars and as a percentage of revenues: Year Ended December 31, % of % of % of 2012 Revenues 2011 Revenues 2010 Revenues (in thousands) (in thousands) (in thousands) Sales and marketing $ 197,603 9% $ 185,105 8% $ 171,035 8% Product development 178,653 8% 161,305 7% 139,166 6% General and administrative 138,290 6% 142,908 6% 137,226 6% Amortization of intangible assets 47,810 2% 63,394 3% 69,051 3% Restructuring expense 1,665 -% 68,082 3% - -% Goodwill impairment - -% 584,847 24% - -% Total operating $ 564,021 26% $ 1,205,641 50% $ 516,478 23% expenses 23-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Table of Contents 2012 vs. 2011 Operating expenses decreased $641.6 million in 2012, compared with 2011. The 2011 operating expenses included $584.8 million of goodwill impairment charges associated with the Electricity and Water reporting units, as well as $68.1 million of restructuring expenses, which represented the majority of total expected expenses under our restructuring project initiated in 2011. Operating expenses for sales and marketing, product development, general and administrative, and amortization of intangible assets represented 26% of revenues in 2012, compared with 23% in 2011. Sales and marketing and product development expenses increased in 2012 compared with 2011, primarily due to increased product development costs for new and enhanced products and investments in targeted geographies in anticipation of sales opportunities. The increase was partially offset by favorable foreign currency translation effects and scheduled decreases in amortization of intangible assets.
2011 vs. 2010 Operating expenses in 2011 included a goodwill impairment of $584.8 million associated with two of our reporting units. Restructuring expenses were $68.1 million primarily associated with accrued severance and asset impairments.
Operating expenses, consisting of sales and marketing, product development, general and administrative, and amortization of intangible assets, increased $36.2 million in 2011, compared with 2010, of which $13.1 million represented the net translation effect of foreign currencies to the U.S. dollar. Operating expenses, consisting of sales and marketing, product development, general and administrative, and amortization of intangible assets, as a percentage of revenue were 23% in 2011 and 2010. Higher costs related to product development for new and enhanced products, as well as higher marketing expense associated with the pursuit of smart grid opportunities were partially offset by a scheduled decrease in amortization of intangible assets.
Other Income (Expense) The following table shows the components of other income (expense): Year Ended December 31, 2012 2011 2010 (in thousands) Interest income $ 952 $ 862 $ 592 Interest expense (8,518 ) (31,079 ) (49,412 )Amortization of prepaid debt fees (1,597 ) (5,715 ) (5,492 ) Other income (expense), net (5,744 ) (6,651 ) (5,440 ) Total other income (expense) $ (14,907 ) $ (42,583 ) $ (59,752 ) Interest income: Interest income is generated from our cash and cash equivalents. Interest rates have continued to remain low.
Interest expense: Interest expense declined each period as a result of our principal balance of debt outstanding, as well as lower interest rates beginning in August 2011. Total debt was $417.5 million, $452.5 million, and $610.9 million at December 31, 2012, 2011, and 2010, respectively. In August 2011, we refinanced our credit facility. The interest rate on our 2011 credit facility was 1.47% at December 31, 2012. The weighted average interest rate on the borrowings under our 2007 credit facility at the time of refinancing (August 2011) was 4.75% (including the effect of an interest rate swap).
Amortization of prepaid debt fees: Amortization of prepaid debt fees in 2012 was lower than in 2011 by $4.1 million, primarily driven by the write-off of $2.4 million of prepaid debt fees in 2011 upon the refinancing of the 2007 credit facility. In addition, we incurred lower prepaid debt fees with the 2011 credit facility. Amortization of prepaid debt fees in 2011 was higher than 2010 due to the $2.4 million write-off of unamortized prepaid debt fees associated with our 2007 credit facility that was replaced with the 2011 credit facility.
Amortization of prepaid debt fees fluctuate each year as debt is repaid early.
As debt is repaid early, the related portion of unamortized prepaid debt fees is written-off. Refer to Item 8: "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, Note 6: Debt" in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for additional details related to our long-term borrowings.
Other income (expense), net: Other expenses, net, consist primarily of unrealized and realized foreign currency gains and losses due to balances denominated in a currency other than the reporting entity's functional currency.
Foreign currency losses, net of hedging, were $3.8 million in 2012, compared with net foreign currency losses of $4.7 million in 2011 and $3.1 million in 2010.
24-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Table of Contents Financial Condition Cash Flow Information: Year Ended December 31, 2012 2011 2010 (in thousands) Operating activities $ 205,090 $ 252,358 $ 254,591 Investing activities (125,445 ) (78,741 ) (56,274 ) Financing activities (77,528 ) (209,453 ) (148,637 ) Effect of exchange rates on cash and cash equivalents 1,208 (555 ) (2,096 ) Increase (decrease) in cash and cash equivalents $ 3,325 $ (36,391 ) $ 47,584 Cash and cash equivalents at December 31, 2012 was comparable to the prior year due to several offsetting factors, including lower net repayments on debt in 2012, compared with 2011, partially offset by increases in business acquisitions and repurchases of common stock and a decrease in cash provided by operating activities in 2012. Cash and cash equivalents was $133.1 million at December 31, 2011, compared with $169.5 million at December 31, 2010. The decrease in the cash and cash equivalents balance during 2011 was primarily the result of repayments of debt, the repurchase of common stock, and minor business acquisitions in 2011.
Operating activities Cash provided by operating activities in 2012 was $47.3 million lower compared with 2011. This decline was primarily due to: (1) a decline in operating income, exclusive of non-cash items, such as goodwill impairment, depreciation and amortization, and non-cash restructuring expense, and (2) the net increase in working capital balances of $23.9 million in 2012, compared with a net decrease in working capital balances of $4.7 million in 2011. Cash provided by operating activities in 2011, inclusive of the impact of $12.8 million in cash payments made related to restructuring projects in 2011, was relatively constant when compared with 2010.
Investing activities Net cash used in investing activities in 2012 was $46.7 million higher compared with 2011. The increase in investing activities during 2012 was the result of business acquisitions of $79.0 million, primarily related to the SmartSynch acquisition, as compared with business acquisitions of $20.1 million in 2011.
The increase in cash used in business acquisitions in 2012 was partially offset by a decrease in acquisitions of property, plant, and equipment to $50.5 million in 2012, compared with $60.1 million in 2011. Refer to Item 8: "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, Note 17: Business Combinations" for additional information regarding the acquisition of SmartSynch.
Net cash used in investing activities in 2011 was $22.5 million higher compared with 2010. Several business acquisitions totaling $20.1 million contributed to the increase in 2011, while property, plant, and equipment acquisitions in 2011 were comparable with 2010.
Financing activities Net cash used in financing activities in 2012 was $131.9 million lower compared with 2011. During 2012, net repayments on borrowings were $35.0 million, compared with $178.1 million in 2011. On October 24, 2011, our Board of Directors authorized a twelve-month repurchase program of up to $100 million of our common stock, which, on September 13, 2012, was extended until February 15, 2013. During 2012, we repurchased $47.4 million of our common stock, compared with $29.4 million in 2011. We did not repurchase any stock from January 1, 2013 through February 15, 2013, when the stock repurchase program expired.
Net cash used in financing activities in 2011 was $60.8 million higher compared with 2010. During 2011, net repayments on borrowings were $178.1 million compared with $155.2 million in 2010. During 2011, we repurchased $29.4 million of our common stock, with no repurchases occurring in 2010. Refer to Item 8: "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, Note 14: Shareholders' Equity" in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for additional details related to our share repurchase program.
Effect of exchange rates on cash and cash equivalents Changes in exchange rates on the cash balances of currencies held in foreign denominations resulted in an increase of $1.2 million and decreases of $555,000 and $2.1 million in 2012, 2011, and 2010, respectively. Our primary foreign currency exposure relates to non-U.S. dollar denominated transactions in our international subsidiary operations, the most significant of which is the euro.
25-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Table of Contents Off-balance sheet arrangements: We have no off-balance sheet financing agreements or guarantees as defined by Item 303 of Regulation S-K at December 31, 2012 and December 31, 2011 that we believe are reasonably likely to have a current or future effect on our financial condition, results of operations, or cash flows.
Disclosures about contractual obligations and commitments: The following table summarizes our known obligations to make future payments pursuant to certain contracts as of December 31, 2012, as well as an estimate of the timing in which these obligations are expected to be satisfied.
Less than 1-3 3-5 Beyond Total 1 year years years 5 years (in thousands) Credit Facilities(1) USD denominated term loan $ 292,421 $ 22,829 $ 64,424 $ 205,168 $ - Multicurrency revolving line of credit 148,889 2,105 4,884 141,900 - Operating lease obligations(2) 64,497 17,214 26,387 17,928 2,968 Purchase and service commitments(3) 184,826 180,515 3,929 382 - Other long-term liabilities reflected on the balance sheet under generally accepted accounting principles(4) 104,252 - 49,960 23,338 30,954 Total $ 794,885 $ 222,663 $ 149,584 $ 388,716 $ 33,922 (1) Borrowings are disclosed within Item 8: "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, Note 6: Debt" included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, with the addition of estimated interest expense but not including the amortization of prepaid debt fees.
(2) Operating lease obligations are disclosed in Item 8: "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, Note 12: Commitments and Contingencies" included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K and do not include common area maintenance charges, real estate taxes, and insurance charges for which we are obligated.
(3) We enter into standard purchase orders in the ordinary course of business that typically obligate us to purchase materials and other items. Purchase orders can vary in terms, which include open-ended agreements that provide for estimated quantities over an extended shipment period, typically up to one year at an established unit cost. Our long-term executory purchase agreements that contain termination clauses have been classified as less than one year, as the commitments are the estimated amounts we would be required to pay at December 31, 2012 if the commitments were canceled.
(4) Other long-term liabilities consist of warranty obligations, estimated pension benefit payments, and other obligations. Estimated pension benefit payments include amounts from 2014-2022. Long-term unrecognized tax benefits totaling $23.9 million (net of pre-payments), which include accrued interest and penalties, are not included in the above contractual obligations and commitments table as we cannot reliably estimate the period of cash settlement with the respective taxing authorities.
Additionally, because the amount and timing of the future cash outflows are uncertain, deferred revenue totaling $32.2, which includes deferred revenue related to extended warranty guarantees, is not included in the table. For further information on defined benefit pension plans, income taxes, and warranty obligations and deferred revenue for extended warranties, see Item 8: "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data," Notes 8, 11, and 12, respectively, included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
26-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Table of Contents Liquidity and Capital Resources: Our principal sources of liquidity are cash flows from operations, borrowings, and sales of common stock. Cash flows may fluctuate and are sensitive to many factors including changes in working capital and the timing and magnitude of capital expenditures and payments on debt. Working capital, which represents current assets less current liabilities, was $353.6 million at December 31, 2012, compared with $329.6 million at December 31, 2011.
Borrowings In August 2011, we entered into an $800 million senior secured credit facility (the 2011 credit facility), which replaced the senior secured credit facility we entered into in 2007. The 2011 credit facility was increased to $960 million on April 2, 2012. The 2011 credit facility consists of a $300 million U.S. dollar term loan and a multicurrency revolving line of credit (the revolver) with a principal amount of up to $660 million, which was increased from $500 million on April 2, 2012. At December 31, 2012, $140 million was outstanding under the revolver, and $54.3 million was utilized by outstanding standby letters of credit, resulting in $465.7 million available for additional borrowings.
For further description of the term loan and the revolver under our 2011 credit facility, refer to Item 8: "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, Note 6: Debt" included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
For a description of our letters of credit and performance bonds, and the amounts available for additional borrowings or letters of credit under our lines of credit, including the revolver that is part of our 2011 credit facility, refer to Item 8: "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, Note 12: Commitments and Contingencies" included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Restructuring During the fourth quarter of 2011, we announced the approval of projects to restructure our manufacturing operations to increase efficiency and lower our cost of manufacturing. We began implementing the projects in the fourth quarter of 2011, and we expect to substantially complete these projects by the end of 2013.
Total expected costs decreased by approximately $7.7 million during 2012 to $77.8 million as of December 31, 2012. This decrease was primarily the result of gains on the dispositions of fixed assets and a correction to the amount of goodwill allocated to one of our non-core businesses sold as part of the restructuring process. In addition, expected severance costs were reduced as the result of certain employees, in positions that were eliminated under the restructuring plan, filling vacant positions within the Company. For further details regarding the correction of the goodwill impairment, refer to Item 8: "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, Note 5: Goodwill" included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. A substantial portion of the total expected restructuring charges was recognized in the fourth quarter of 2011, and $17.7 million was accrued at December 31, 2012, of which $13.2 million is expected to be paid over the next 12 months. We have begun to realize benefits from our restructuring projects during 2012, and we expect full realization of the cost savings by the end of 2013 and into 2014. Certain projects are subject to a variety of labor and employment laws, rules, and regulations that could result in a delay in implementing projects at some locations. Real estate market conditions may impact the timing of our ability to sell some of the manufacturing facilities we have designated for closure and disposal. This may delay the completion of the restructuring projects beyond 2013. For further details regarding our restructuring activities, refer to Item 8: "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, Note 13: Restructuring" included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Income Tax Our tax provision (benefit) as a percentage of income (loss) before tax typically differs from the U.S. federal statutory rate of 35%. Changes in our actual tax rate are subject to several factors, including fluctuations in operating results, new or revised tax legislation and accounting pronouncements, changes in the level of business in domestic and foreign jurisdictions, tax credits (including research and development and foreign tax), state income taxes, adjustments to valuation allowances, and interest expense and penalties related to uncertain tax positions, among other items. Changes in tax laws and unanticipated tax liabilities could significantly impact our tax rate.
Our tax expense as a percentage of income before tax was 19.1% for 2012. Our actual tax rate was lower than the 35% U.S. federal statutory tax rate primarily due to: (1) earnings of our subsidiaries outside of the United States in jurisdictions where our statutory tax rate is lower than in the United States; (2) the benefit of certain interest expense deductions; (3) a benefit related to the release of reserves for uncertain tax positions; and (4) benefits of certain acquisition related elections for tax purposes.
Our tax expense as a percentage of loss before tax was (0.9%) for 2011. Our actual tax rate was lower than the 35% U.S. federal statutory tax rate primarily due to: (1) the impact of the goodwill impairment, which was not deductible; (2) earnings of our subsidiaries outside of the United States in jurisdictions where our statutory tax rate is lower than in the United States; (3) the 27-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Table of Contents benefit of certain interest expense deductions; (4) a benefit related to the settlement of foreign tax litigation; and (5) benefits of certain acquisition related elections for tax purposes.
Our tax expense as a percentage of income before tax was 12.8% for 2010. Our actual tax rate was lower than the 35% U.S. federal statutory tax rate primarily due to: (1) earnings of our subsidiaries outside of the United States in jurisdictions where our statutory tax rate is lower than in the United States; (2) the benefit of certain interest expense deductions; and (3) the de-recognition of a reserve for uncertain tax positions due to a change in the method of depreciation for certain foreign subsidiaries Our deferred tax assets consist primarily of tax losses and temporary differences related to depreciation, amortization and accrued expenses.
Our deferred tax assets at December 31, 2012 do not include the tax effect on $55.2 million of excess tax benefits from employee stock plan exercises. Common stock will be increased by $21.0 million when such excess tax benefits reduce cash taxes payable.
Our cash income tax payments for 2012, 2011, and 2010 were as follows: Year Ended December 31, 2012 2011 2010 (in thousands) U.S. federal taxes paid $ 15,500 $ 5,900 $ 4,060 State income taxes paid 2,831 2,450 505Foreign and local income taxes paid 22,468 19,779 25,577 Total income taxes paid $ 40,799 $ 28,129 $ 30,142 Based on current projections, we expect to pay, net of refunds, approximately $400,000 in state taxes and $28.9 million in foreign and local income taxes in 2013. Currently, we do not expect to pay any U.S. federal taxes in 2013.
As of December 31, 2012, there was $41.1 million of cash and short-term investments held by certain foreign subsidiaries that could be repatriated to fund U.S. operations, and additional tax costs may be required. Tax is one of many factors that we consider in the management of global cash. Included in the determination of the tax costs in repatriating foreign cash into the United States are the amount of earnings and profits in a particular jurisdiction, withholding taxes that would be imposed, and available foreign tax credits.
Accordingly, the amount of taxes that we would need to accrue and pay to repatriate foreign cash could vary significantly.
The American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012 (the "Act") was signed into law on January 2, 2013 and extended several business tax provisions including: (1) the active financing income and controlled foreign corporation look-through exceptions to certain foreign income; and (2) the research and experimentation credit. The tax effects of the Act will be recognized in the first quarter of 2013.
Other Liquidity Considerations For a description of our funded and unfunded non-U.S. defined benefit pension plans and our expected 2013 contributions, refer to Item 8: "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, Note 8: Defined Benefit Pension Plans" included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
At December 31, 2012, we have accrued $22.1 million of bonus and profit sharing plans expense for the achievement of annual financial and nonfinancial targets, compared with $26.0 million at December 31, 2011. These awards will be paid in cash during the first quarter of 2013.
The Company conducts business in Italy, Spain, and Portugal, which have been experiencing significant financial stress. As of December 31, 2012, we had trade receivables in these countries of approximately 1% of consolidated total assets, compared with approximately 2% as of December 31, 2011. As of December 31, 2012 and 2011, we did not have any marketable investments in corporate or sovereign government debt securities in these countries.
We expect to grow through a combination of internal new product development, licensing technology from and to others, distribution agreements, partnership arrangements, and acquisitions of technology or other companies. We expect these activities to be funded with existing cash, cash flow from operations, borrowings, and the sale of common stock or other securities. We believe existing sources of liquidity will be sufficient to fund our existing operations and obligations for the next 12 months and into the foreseeable future, but offer no assurances. Our liquidity could be affected by the stability of the energy and water industries, competitive 28-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Table of Contents pressures, changes in estimated liabilities for product warranties and/or litigation, future business combinations, capital market fluctuations, international risks, and other factors described under "Risk Factors" included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Contingencies Refer to Item 8: "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, Note 12: Commitments and Contingencies" included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Critical Accounting Estimates Revenue Recognition The majority of our revenue arrangements involve multiple deliverables, which require us to determine the fair value of each deliverable and then allocate the total arrangement consideration among the separate deliverables based on the relative fair value percentages. Revenues for each deliverable are then recognized based on the type of deliverable, such as 1) when the products are shipped, 2) services are delivered, 3) percentage-of-completion when implementation services are essential to other deliverables in the arrangement, 4) upon receipt of customer acceptance, or 5) transfer of title and risk of loss. A majority of our revenue is recognized when products are shipped to or received by a customer or when services are provided.
Fair value represents the estimated price charged if an element were sold separately. If the fair value of any undelivered element included in a multiple deliverable arrangement cannot be objectively determined, revenue is deferred until all elements are delivered and services have been performed, or until the fair value can be objectively determined for any remaining undelivered elements.
We review our fair values on an annual basis or more frequently if a significant trend is noted.
If implementation services are essential to a software arrangement, revenue is recognized using either the percentage-of-completion methodology of contract accounting if project costs can be reliably estimated or the completed contract methodology if project costs cannot be reliably estimated. The estimation of costs through completion of a project is subject to many variables such as the length of time to complete, changes in wages, subcontractor performance, supplier information, and business volume assumptions. Changes in underlying assumptions/estimates may adversely or positively affect financial performance.
Certain of our revenue arrangements include an extended or noncustomary warranty provision that covers all or a portion of a customer's replacement or repair costs beyond the standard or customary warranty period. Whether or not the extended warranty is separately priced in the arrangement, a portion of the arrangement's total consideration is allocated to this extended warranty deliverable. This revenue is deferred and recognized over the extended warranty coverage period. Extended or noncustomary warranties do not represent a significant portion of our revenue.
We allocate consideration to each deliverable in an arrangement based on its relative selling price. We determine selling price using vendor specific objective evidence (VSOE), if it exists, otherwise third-party evidence (TPE).
If neither VSOE nor TPE of selling price exists for a unit of accounting, we use estimated selling price (ESP).
VSOE is generally limited to the price charged when the same or similar product is sold separately or, if applicable, the stated renewal rate in the agreement.
If a product or service is seldom sold separately, it is unlikely that we can determine VSOE for the product or service. We define VSOE as a median price of recent standalone transactions that are priced within a narrow range. TPE is determined based on the prices charged by our competitors for a similar deliverable when sold separately.
If we are unable to establish selling price using VSOE or TPE, we use ESP in the allocation of arrangement consideration. The objective of ESP is to determine the price at which we would transact if the product or service were sold by us on a standalone basis. Our determination of ESP involves a weighting of several factors based on the specific facts and circumstances of the arrangement.
Specifically, we consider the cost to produce the deliverable, the anticipated margin on that deliverable, the selling price and profit margin for similar parts, our ongoing pricing strategy and policies (as evident in the price list established and updated by management on a regular basis), the value of any enhancements that have been built into the deliverable, and the characteristics of the varying markets in which the deliverable is sold. We analyze the selling prices used in our allocation of arrangement consideration on an annual basis.
Selling prices are analyzed on a more frequent basis if a significant change in our business necessitates a more timely analysis or if we experience significant variances in our selling prices.
Warranty We offer standard warranties on our hardware products and large application software products. We accrue the estimated cost of new product warranties based on historical and projected product performance trends and costs during the warranty period. Testing of new products in the development stage helps identify and correct potential warranty issues prior to manufacturing. Continuous quality control efforts during manufacturing reduce our exposure to warranty claims. If our quality control efforts fail to detect a 29-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Table of Contents fault in one of our products, we may experience an increase in warranty claims.
We track warranty claims to identify potential warranty trends. If an unusual trend is noted, an additional warranty accrual may be assessed and recorded when a failure event is probable and the cost can be reasonably estimated. When new products are introduced, our process relies on historical averages until sufficient data are available. As actual experience on new products becomes available, it is used to modify the historical averages to ensure the expected warranty costs are within a range of likely outcomes. Management continually evaluates the sufficiency of the warranty provisions and makes adjustments when necessary. The warranty allowances may fluctuate due to changes in estimates for material, labor, and other costs we may incur to repair or replace projected product failures, and we may incur additional warranty and related expenses in the future with respect to new or established products, which could adversely affect our gross margin. The long-term warranty balance includes estimated warranty claims beyond one year.
Restructuring and Asset Impairments We record a liability for costs associated with an exit or disposal activity at its fair value in the period in which the liability is incurred. Employee termination benefits considered postemployment benefits are accrued when the obligation is probable and estimable, such as benefits stipulated by human resource policies and practices or statutory requirements. One-time termination benefits are expensed at the date the employee is notified. If the employee must provide future service greater than 60 days, such benefits are expensed ratably over the future service period. For contract termination costs, we record a liability upon the later of when we terminate a contract in accordance with the contract terms or when we cease using the rights conveyed by the contract.
Asset impairments are determined at the asset group level. An impairment may be recorded for assets that are to be abandoned, sold for less than net book value, or held for sale in which the estimated proceeds are less than the net book value less costs to sell. We may also recognize impairment on an asset group, which is held and used, when the carrying value is not recoverable and exceeds the asset group's fair value. An asset group may consist of many inter-related assets and liabilities. If an asset group is considered a business, a portion of the Company's goodwill balance is allocated to it based on relative fair value.
In determining restructuring charges, we analyze our future operating requirements, including the required headcount by business functions and facility space requirements. Our restructuring costs and any resulting accruals involve significant estimates using the best information available at the time the estimates are made. Our estimates involve a number of risks and uncertainties, some of which are beyond our control, including future real estate market conditions and local labor and employment laws, rules, and regulations. If the amounts and timing of cash flows from restructuring activities are significantly different from what we have estimated, the actual amount of restructuring charges, including asset impairments, could be materially different, either higher or lower, than those we have previously recorded.
Income Taxes We estimate income tax expense in each of the taxing jurisdictions in which we operate. Changes in our actual tax rate are subject to several factors, including fluctuations in operating results, new or revised tax legislation and accounting pronouncements, changes in the level of business in domestic and foreign jurisdictions, tax credits (including research and development and foreign tax), state income taxes, adjustments to valuation allowances, and interest expense and penalties related to uncertain tax positions, among other items. Changes in tax laws and unanticipated tax liabilities could significantly impact our tax rate.
We record valuation allowances to reduce deferred tax assets to the extent we believe it is more likely than not that a portion of such assets will not be realized. In making such determinations, we consider all available positive and negative evidence, including scheduled reversals of deferred tax liabilities, projected future taxable income, tax planning strategies, and our ability to carry back losses to prior years. We are required to make assumptions and judgments about potential outcomes that lie outside management's control. Our most sensitive and critical factors are the projection, source, and character of future taxable income. Although realization is not assured, management believes it is more likely than not that deferred tax assets will be realized. The amount of deferred tax assets considered realizable, however, could be reduced in the near term if estimates of future taxable income during the carryforward periods are reduced or current tax planning strategies are not implemented.
We are subject to audit in multiple taxing jurisdictions in which we operate.
These audits may involve complex issues, which may require an extended period of time to resolve. We believe we have recorded adequate income tax provisions and reserves for uncertain tax positions.
In evaluating uncertain tax positions, we consider the relative risks and merits of positions taken in tax returns filed and to be filed, considering statutory, judicial, and regulatory guidance applicable to those positions. We make assumptions and judgments about potential outcomes that lie outside management's control. To the extent the tax authorities disagree with our conclusions and depending on the final resolution of those disagreements, our actual tax rate may be materially affected in the period of final settlement with the tax authorities.
30-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Table of Contents Inventories Items are removed from inventory using the first-in, first-out method.
Inventories include raw materials, work-in-process, and finished goods.
Inventory amounts include the cost to manufacture the item, such as the cost of raw materials, labor, and other applied direct and indirect costs. We also review idle facility expense, freight, handling costs, and wasted materials to determine if abnormal amounts should be recognized as current-period charges. We review our inventory for obsolescence and marketability. If the estimated market value, which is based upon assumptions about future demand and market conditions, falls below the original cost, the inventory value is reduced to the market value. If technology rapidly changes or actual market conditions are less favorable than those projected by management, inventory write-downs may be required. Our inventory levels may vary period to period as a result of our factory scheduling and timing of contract fulfillments.
Goodwill and Intangible Assets Goodwill and intangible assets result from our acquisitions. We use estimates, including estimates of useful lives of intangible assets, the amount and timing of related future cash flows, and fair values of the related operations, in determining the value assigned to goodwill and intangible assets. Our intangible assets have a finite life and are amortized over their estimated useful lives based on estimated discounted cash flows. Intangible assets are tested for impairment when events or changes in circumstances indicate the carrying value may not be recoverable.
Goodwill is assigned to our reporting units based on the expected benefit from the synergies arising from each business combination, determined by using certain financial metrics, including the forecasted discounted cash flows associated with each reporting unit. Prior to 2012, we had four reporting units: Itron North America (INA), Itron International (INL) Electricity, INL Gas, and INL Water. Effective January 1, 2012, our three reporting units are Electricity, Gas, and Water. Our Energy operating segment comprises the Electricity and Gas reporting units, while our Water operating segment comprises the Water reporting unit. In the first quarter of 2012, we reallocated the goodwill from our former INA reporting unit to the three new reporting units based on the relative fair values of the electricity, gas, and water product lines within INA on January 1, 2012. We also reassigned the goodwill from our former INL Electricity, INL Gas, and INL Water reporting units to the new reporting units, Electricity, Gas, and Water, respectively.
We test goodwill for impairment each year as of October 1, or more frequently should a significant impairment indicator occur. The impairment test for goodwill involves comparing the fair value of the reporting units to their carrying amounts. If the carrying amount of a reporting unit exceeds its fair value, a second step is required to measure for a goodwill impairment loss. This step revalues all assets and liabilities of the reporting unit to their current fair values and then compares the implied fair value of the reporting unit's goodwill to the carrying amount of that goodwill. If the carrying amount of the reporting unit's goodwill exceeds the implied fair value of the goodwill, an impairment loss is recognized in an amount equal to the excess.
Determining the fair value of a reporting unit is judgmental in nature and involves the use of significant estimates and assumptions. We forecast discounted future cash flows at the reporting unit level using risk-adjusted discount rates and estimated future revenues and operating costs, which take into consideration factors such as existing backlog, expected future orders, supplier contracts, and expectations of competitive and economic environments.
We also identify similar publicly traded companies and develop a correlation, referred to as a multiple, to apply to the operating results of the reporting units. These combined fair values are then reconciled to our aggregate market value of our shares of common stock on the date of valuation, while considering a reasonable control premium.
As a result of the significant decline in the price of our shares of common stock at the end of September 2011, our aggregate market value was significantly lower than the aggregate carrying value of our net assets. As a result, we performed an interim impairment test of our goodwill as of September 30, 2011, which resulted in an impairment charge. The goodwill impairment did not impact the debt covenants compliance under the Company's existing credit facility.
The goodwill impairment before the reorganization into the new reporting units was associated with two reporting units from the Itron International operating segment. The goodwill balance before and after the goodwill impairment was as follows: Reporting Unit Before Impairment Impairment After Impairment (in thousands) Itron International - Electricity $ 363,626 $ 254,735 $ 108,891 Itron International - Water 389,308 330,112 59,196 $ 584,847 31-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Table of Contents Based on our most recent annual goodwill impairment test as of October 1, 2012, the percentage by which the estimated fair value of the reporting units exceeded their carrying value and amount of goodwill allocated to each of these reporting units were as follows: October 1, 2012 Reporting Unit Goodwill Fair Value Exceeded Carrying Value (in thousands) Energy - Electricity $ 221,119 19 % Energy - Gas 382,563 66 % Water 83,750 317 % Changes in market demand, fluctuations in the economies in which we operate, the volatility and decline in the worldwide equity markets, and a further decline in our market capitalization could negatively impact the remaining carrying value of our goodwill, which could have a significant effect on our current and future results of operations and financial condition.
Derivative Instruments All derivative instruments, whether designated in hedging relationships or not, are recorded on the Consolidated Balance Sheets at fair value as either assets or liabilities. The components and fair values of our derivative instruments are determined using the fair value measurements of significant other observable inputs (also known as "Level 2"), as defined by U.S. generally accepted accounting principles. We include the effect of our counterparty credit risk based on current published credit default swap rates when the net fair value of our derivative instruments is in a asset position and the effect of our own nonperformance risk when the net fair value of our derivative instruments is in a liability position. Level 2 inputs consist of quoted prices for similar assets and liabilities in active markets, quoted prices for identical or similar assets and liabilities in non-active markets, and model-derived valuations in which significant inputs are corroborated by observable market data either directly or indirectly through correlation or other means (inputs may include yield curves, volatility measures, credit risks, and default rates). Derivatives are not used for trading or speculative purposes. Our derivatives are with credit worthy multinational commercial banks, with whom we have master netting agreements; however, our derivative positions are not disclosed on a net basis. There are no credit risk related contingent features within our derivative instruments.
Defined Benefit Pension Plans We sponsor both funded and unfunded defined benefit pension plans for certain international employees, primarily in Germany, France, Italy, Indonesia, and Spain. We recognize a liability for the projected benefit obligation in excess of plan assets or an asset for plan assets in excess of the projected benefit obligation. We also recognize the funded status of our defined benefit pension plans on our Consolidated Balance Sheets and recognize as a component of other comprehensive income (loss) (OCI), net of tax, the actuarial gains or losses and prior service costs or credits, if any, that arise during the period but are not recognized as components of net periodic benefit cost.
Several economic assumptions and actuarial data are used in calculating the expense and obligations related to these plans. The assumptions are updated annually at December 31 and include the discount rate, the expected remaining service life, the expected rate of return on plan assets, and rate of future compensation increase. The discount rate is a significant assumption used to value our pension benefit obligation. We determine a discount rate for our plans based on the estimated duration of each plan's liabilities. For our euro denominated defined benefit pension plans, which represent 94% of our benefit obligation, we use three discount rates, with consideration of the duration of the plans, using a hypothetical yield curve developed from euro-denominated AA-rated corporate bond issues, partially weighted for market value, with minimum amounts outstanding of €250 million for bonds with less than 10 years to maturity and €50 million for bonds with 10 or more years to maturity, and excluding the highest and lowest yielding 10% of bonds within each maturity group. The discount rates used, depending on the duration of the plans, were 2.75%, 3.25% and 3.50%, respectively. The weighted average discount rate used to measure the projected benefit obligation for all of the plans at December 31, 2012 was 3.36%. A change of 25 basis points in the discount rate would change our pension benefit obligation by approximately $4.0 million. The financial and actuarial assumptions used at December 31, 2012 may differ materially from actual results due to changing market and economic conditions and other factors.
These differences could result in a significant change in the amount of pension expense recorded in future periods. Gains and losses resulting from changes in actuarial assumptions, including the discount rate, are recognized in OCI in the period in which they occur.
Our general funding policy for these qualified pension plans is to contribute amounts at least sufficient to satisfy funding standards of the respective countries for each plan. Refer to Item 8: "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, Note 8: Defined Benefit Pension Plans" included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for our expected contributions for 2013.
32-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Table of Contents Contingencies A loss contingency is recorded if it is probable that an asset has been impaired or a liability has been incurred and the amount of the loss can be reasonably estimated. We evaluate, among other factors, the degree of probability of an unfavorable outcome and our ability to make a reasonable estimate of the amount of the ultimate loss. Loss contingencies that we determine to be reasonably possible, but not probable, are disclosed but not recorded. Changes in these factors and related estimates could materially affect our financial position and results of operations. Legal costs to defend against contingent liabilities are expensed as incurred.
Stock-Based Compensation We measure and recognize compensation expense for all stock-based awards made to employees and directors, including awards of stock options, stock sold pursuant to our Employee Stock Purchase Plan (ESPP), and the issuance of restricted stock units and unrestricted stock awards, based on estimated fair values. The fair value of stock options is estimated at the date of grant using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model, which includes assumptions for the dividend yield, expected volatility, risk-free interest rate, and expected life. In valuing our stock options, significant judgment is required in determining the expected volatility of our common stock and the expected life that individuals will hold their stock options prior to exercising. Expected volatility is based on the historical and implied volatility of our own common stock. The expected life of stock option grants is derived from the historical actual term of option grants and an estimate of future exercises during the remaining contractual period of the option. While volatility and estimated life are assumptions that do not bear the risk of change subsequent to the grant date of stock options, these assumptions may be difficult to measure as they represent future expectations based on historical experience. Further, our expected volatility and expected life may change in the future, which could substantially change the grant-date fair value of future awards of stock options and, ultimately, the expense we record. For ESPP awards, the fair value is the difference between the market close price of our common stock on the date of purchase and the discounted purchase price. For restricted stock units and unrestricted stock awards, the fair value is the market close price of our common stock on the date of grant.
We consider many factors when estimating expected forfeitures, including types of awards, employee class, and historical experience. Actual results and future estimates may differ substantially from our current estimates. We expense stock-based compensation at the date of grant for unrestricted stock awards. For awards with only a service condition, we expense stock-based compensation, adjusted for estimated forfeitures, using the straight-line method over the requisite service period for the entire award. For awards with both performance and service conditions, we expense the stock-based compensation, adjusted for estimated forfeitures, on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period for each separately vesting portion of the award. Excess tax benefits are credited to common stock when the deduction reduces cash taxes payable. When we have tax deductions in excess of the compensation cost, they are classified as financing cash inflows in the Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows.
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